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Lecture

Health Science Lecture - Sept 27.pdf

5 Pages
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Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
Health Sciences 1002A/B
Professor
Jessica Polzer

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Description
Health Sciences September 27, 2012 Poverty and Health • Black Report • Social Exclusion • Social Inequality • Absolute poverty, Relative poverty • Depth of Poverty • LICO • Median share of income • Gini coefficient The Black Report (1980) •1977 – Sir Douglas Black commissioned by federal government (UK) to write report investigating why NHS had failed to reduce inequalities in health Main findings & recommendations: •Poorest people have the worst health •Mortality and morbidity not explained by lifestyles alone •Recommendation that govt. increase benefits to poor , change tax to restrict sale and advertising of tobacco. The Black Report: Main Findings Trends: females death rates are lower than men for every grade. ratio of the unskilled to the most skilled is about 2.5 - When was the Black Report Published? Why? - Report completed in 1980, after the conservatives came to power under Margaret Thatcher - Report was never published widely! Results were suppressed. - Recommendations not taken into consideration, despite evidence of persistent health inequalities. Canada & Poverty: - When looking at poverty, we are looking at the bottom of the social gradient. - Poverty is caused by social and political dynamics and policies that result in some groups experiencing social exclusion. The poverty-health link - A “robust” association b/w poverty and ill health - Poverty one of the strongest determinants of health status - How can we study the poverty-health link? - Correlation studies - Longitudinal studies - which variables come first, track relationships - Qualitative studies - deal with words, experiences, allow people to name experiences in their own words. - International comparison studies - allow you to look at poverty rates between countries, why do some have higher/lower poverty than others. Measuring Poverty - Different measures of poverty 1. Absolute Poverty - deprived of absolute human needs, food, shelter 2. Relative Poverty - refers to material and social deprivation that leads to the inability to take part in activities customary in industrialized societies. Takes into account more than just basic human needs. Need money to engage in social activities. Transportation. - LICO (Low-Income Cut Offs) - LICOs vary by the # of people in a family (from 1-7 or more) and by size of community in which the family lives. (an income threshold below which a family is likely to devote the majority of its income on basic necessities (food, shelter, clothing.) Set by standards and family size. The government regulates these LICOʼs. 3. Depth of poverty - extent to which income falls below the LICO. Poverty in Canada: - 11% of all Canadians live below the LICO - 12% of Ontarioʼs children live in poverty. - Child poverty rates have held despite commitment to end poverty by 2000. The poverty-health link: - Infant mortality rates are 61% higher in poorest areas of Canada - Low birth weight rates are 43% higher - Low income women in Ontario are 4X more likely to suffer from diabetes compared to women with higher incomes - Prevalence of depression among low-income individuals is 60% higher than high income individuals - Low income is estimated to predict 25 to 30% of mortality caused by cardiovascular disease - Poverty tends to cluster in groups. Who is Poor in Canada? - Certain groups are at particularly high risk of living in or experiencing poverty, and are particularly vulnerable to the health effects of living in poverty, including: - People living in impoverished urban areas. - Recent immigrants
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