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LEC 6D Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs.docx

7 Pages
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Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
Health Sciences 2300A/B
Professor
Jamie Melling

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The Muscular System: Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs November-15-12 2:47 PM 5 Muscle Groups of Pelvis  5 different groups, in picture only 4 is seen, one is big enough to be separated into 2 subgroups  Nerves that innervate come from lumbar or sacral plexuses  2 main nerves in lumbar region femoral and Obtruator nerve (runs through obturator foramen)  Femoral- large nerve anterior in the thigh  Superior gluteal nerve and anterior nerve  Sciatic nerve- like an extension cord, and as thick  Sciatica – continuous pressure placed in this nerve because it is so big, structures it innervates begin to tingle and get sore  “Common”- further braches to come, common artery that will branch into further arteries The Femur  Vastus intermedius- originates off the anterior femur  Very few insertion points on the anterior femur , few attachments  On the posterior side very different- lots of attachments  Assign an origin for a muscle on pelvis or femur, move towards insertion point you need to consider where it attaches on femur, what the muscle will do  Originate from anterior pelvis to posterior femur- causes rotational movement on the femur The Illiopsoas  Also called the “hip flexor group”  Psoas- two muscles - major and minor  Primary muscle is the illiopsoas- made up of two muscles that joint together to form one, referred to as one muscle because it has one innervation point  Originates from iliac fossa  Actually three muscles if you consider femoris which originate from lumbar vertebrae from transverse processes and vertebral bodies come  Cannot separate psoas and lilacs- consider one muscle with multiple innervation  illiopsoas- Lesser trochanter of the femur  illiopsoas is a large hip flexor  almost entire sit up using illiopsoas muscle – last 15 deg is your abs  Sartorius- muscle that crosses leg (named after tailor) because they used to sit on floor  Originates from anterior superior iliac spine  Insertion point is on the medial tibia  Rectus femoris- insertion is the interior superior iliac spine  One of the quadricep muscles, straight muscle in the anterior thigh  only one of 4 that cross the hip The Gluteal Group  Large group that will be split into 2 based on innervation and origin  Maximus- originates from posterior ilia crest, down sacrum and portion of coccyx , very posterior origin  Insertion point is the gluteal tuberosity - unique bump to gluteal maximas  Contraction of fibers would cause lateral rotation of the hip b/c goes to the posterior side of femur  Primary leg extensor  Medius/ Minimus- lie on top of each other and perform identical functions  Same innervation and function, could consider them one but don’t because very clear which is which  Medius very small underneath  Originate off illium and insert onto greater trochanter of the femur on the anterior side of femur  b/c anterior contraction of the muscles will cause medial rotation of the hip joint  Additional function of abduction of hip joint (thigh)  Maximus is a muscle on its own, largest muscle  Medius and minimus is similar to each other, maximus should be its own muscle group b/c has its own insertion point and innervated to gluteal nerve, extensor and lateral rotator of hip joint , diff function  Medius and minimus- abduct thigh and cause medial rotation and have their own innervation of superior gluteal nerve  Red is lateral rotator muscles The Gluteal Group Cont. - Tensor Fascia Latae  Made out of fascia surrounds entire thigh  Embedded in fascia is an IT Band  Incorporates all muscles in thigh and ends at IT Band  Inside fascia is a muscle tensor fascia latae" - contracts makes tighter the fascia latae  Grab at thigh to pull up stocking- this is where tensor lies  Excessive tightening through fascia latae, often have a condition n which IT tract/ band tightens so much it pulls away from insertion point on side of knee - treated which a roller device run over IT Band to stretch it and loosen it  Muscle in same group as medius and minimus shares same innervation with slightly different function - doesn’t move or pull bone just tightens fascia  Superior gluteal nerve innervation The Lateral Rotators  Pisiforms- originates from anterior sacrum inserts onto greater trochanter of the femur  Imp to identify helps to see sciatic nerve  Obtruator Internus - muscle originates from rim around inner Obtruator internus and inserts onto greater trochanter  Above/below are two other muscles gemellus muscles- superior and inferior gemellus- attach to posterior femur and from posterior hip cause lateral rotation  Origin for super G is from ischial spine , inserts onto greater trochanter  Inferior G originates at greater tuberosity onto greater trochanter  Ouatratus Femoris  Inserts onto greater trochanter and again onto gluteal tuberosity  Innervation in region Id diff, many nerves but named afar muscle that its innervated  Muscles in red lining innervation is named after muscle -innervating pisiformis is nerve to pisiformis  Gemellus "twins" superior uses innervation from obturator internus and inferior gemellus borrows innervation from quatratus femoris  All muscles insert onto greater trochanter - anterior and borrows most posterior side of the greater trochanter allowing lateral rotation to occur  Muscles also act as abduction of the hip  Obturator externus- muscle similar to internus excepts originates from border around obturator foramen on external surface opposite side of the pelvis  Muscle lies within medial thigh muscles Medial Thigh Muscles  Also known as "groin muscles"- originate from the groin region  Injure them by pulling away from the groin region, run the length of the thigh, very large  Gracilis- straight and thin muscle, very medial, originates from inferior pubic rami  Border around Obtruator foramen  Inserts on the medial side of the tibia, crossing both the knee and hip joint  Accompanies sortoris by attaching to the gooses foot on medial side of tibia  Pectineus- short muscle  Originates from superior pectoral rami  Adductor Longus- originates very right to the articulation between 2 pubic bones, say origin is on pubic symphysis  2, one on each side of body  Portion of muscle originates from pubic body very medial origin Adductor Brevis- originates off the inferior pubic rami   See if cut away pectineus  Both brevis and longus insert on the linea aspera  Adductor Magnus- insertion on the linea aspera  Moves the furthest down on the linea aspera and ends on the adductor tubercle (funny bump)  Linea aspera runs all the way to the adductor tubercle  Hole on the adductor hiatus  Across group of muscles including magnus, all work to flex the hip, medially rotate hip joint and adduct hip joint  Innervation, common nerve is obturator nerve  In addition to adduction, flexion, medial rotation the adductor magnus also extends and laterally rotates the hip  Anterior fibres consistent with regulatory movements-flexion, adduction, medial rotation  If isolated posterior fibres you have extension and lateral rotation instead  Large origin that allows for multiple function of adductor magnus- inferior pubic rami and ischial rami- entire inferior border to obturator foramen The Magnus  Isolate posterior fibres b/c of large origin you have a larger angle of pull and lateral rotation  Angle of pull towards center of acetabulum causing abductor movement of the femur  Extension is an ar
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