appendicular skeleton

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 2300A/B
Jamie Melling

Appendicular Skeleton: - Composed of Upper and LowerAppendages - Upper: Clavicle, Scapula, Humerus, Radius, Ulna, Carpals, Metacarpals, Phalanges - Lower: Pubis, Ilium, Ischeum, Femur, Tibia, Fibula, Tarsals, Metatarsals, Phalanges - Girdles are used to connect theAppendicular toAxial Skeleton Pectoral Girdle: - Attaches the upper appendicular skeleton to the axial skeleton - Sternoclavicular Joint:Articulation between the scapula and clavicle * Ajoint is most commonly named from its medial to lateral origin (ex: sterno- clavicular) - Scapula: Lies on the back of the rib cage… has a structure called the acromion process - Acromion Process: Part of the scapula that articulates with the clavicle - Acromion Process  Clavicle  Sternum - Is easily fractured at the distal (lateral) portion of the bone - Several arteries run over and below the clavicle - Superior surface is very smooth where as inferior surface is rough due to several tuberosities - Acromial Extremity: Articulates with the scapula - Sternal Extremity: Articulates with the sternum - Costal Tuberosity: Where the costal clavicular ligament attaches The Clavicle: Sternoclavicular Joint: - Area where the clavicle articulates with the sternum - Uses strong ligaments to support the joint, making it stable - Sternoclavicular Ligament: Connects the Manubrium to the Clavicle - Interclavicular Ligament: Connects Right Clavicle to the Left Clavicle - Costoclavicular Ligament: Joint that connects the clavicle to - Acromion Process: Serves as the site where the clavicle articulates with the scapula - Glenoid Fossa: Where the head of the humerous articulates with the scapula - Infraglenoid Tubercle: Bump below the glenoid fossa that serves as the attachment for triceps - Supraglenoid Tubercle: Attaches the bicep muscle to the scapula - Infraspinous Fossa: Helps to control the rotation of the shoulder (where rotator cuff muscles attach) - Supraspinaous Fossa: Same function as above, also an area where the rotator cuff muscles attach - SuperiorAngle: Serves as a connection between the medial and superior borders The Scapula: The Proximal Humerus: - Articulates with the scapula via a ball and socket joint - Provides lots of movement, but has low stability - Deltoid Tuberosity: Where deltoids insert - Greater / Lesser Tubercles: Where rotator cuffs insert - Bicipital Groove: Where bicep tendon runs The Distal Humerus: -Articulates with radius and ulna forming the elbow joint - Radial Fossa: Where the radius articulates with the humerus on the anterior humerus - Olecranon Fossa: Where the ulna articulates with the humerus on the posterior humerus, limit to extention - Coronoid Fossa: Where ulna articulates (on anterior) - Capitulum: Condyle that articulates to the radius forming a freely moving joint - Trochlea: Condyle that articulates with the ulna - Medial Epicondyle: The ‘funny bone’(has a nerve next to it) - The radius gets larger as you move distally, the ulna gets smaller - Trochlear Notch or Ulna: Articulates with the humerus - Radial Notch of Ulna: Articulates with radius - Olecranon of Ulna: Serves as muscle insertion for triceps, fits into olecranon fossa of humerus - Coronoid Process of Ulna: Serves as muscle origins for wrist flexors, fits into coronoid fossa of ulna when flexing - Interoserrous Membrane: Ligament-like structure that holds the radius and ulna together Radius and Ulna: It is the left! Right Wrist and Hand: - Hand bones separated into carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges - Carpals: Known as the wrist bones, named lateral  medial - Proximal Row: Scaphoid, Lunate, Pisiform, Triquetral - Scaphoid is the most commonly broken wrist bone - Pisiform is a sessamoid bone (has no articulation, as it lays within a tendon)
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