Axial skeleton

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 2300A/B
Jamie Melling

The Vertebral Column: - Composed Of: 7 Cervical, 12 Thoracic, 5 Lumbar, 4-5 Fused Sacral, and 4 Fused Coccyx Portions - Cervical: Neck, Thoracic: Rib Cage, Lumbar: Lower Back, Sacral: Attached to Pelvis, Coccyx: Tailbone - Curvatures: Spinal chord has 4 curvatures allowing for flexibility, but compromising stability - Intervertebral Disks: Fibrous Cartilage disks that add stability Vertebral Curvatures: - In the frontal plane we are aligned straight, but in the sagital plane 4 curvatures are evident ? - 1) Cervical Curvature: Concave (cave like), secondary curvature (takes place after birth) - 2) Thoracic Curvature: Convex (back of a spoon), primary curvature (present at birth) - 3) Lumbar Curvature: Concave, secondary curvature (takes place after birth), forms after child walks - 4) Sacral Curvature: Convex, primary curvature (present at birth) - In girls, their stomachs often stick out due to the lumbar curvature not forming completely - Kyphosis: Exaggerated curve in the upper thoracic region (hunchback), occurs after birth - Lordosis: Exaggerated curve of the lumbar region due to the improper formation of muscles - Scoleosis: Misalignment of vertebrae in the sagital plane (prominent in the lumbar region) Typical Vertebrae: - Body: Structure found anteriorally that provides support - Pedicle (2): ‘Feet’that branch off of the body -Vertebral Foramen: Hole created by body and vertebral arch - Where spinal nerves run - Lamina (2): ‘Shoulders’that complete the arch - Spinous Process: Structure found posterior that you can feel - Transverse Process (2): ‘Arms’found in transverse plane - SuperiorArticulate Process (2): Point superior, have a facet - SuperiorArticular Facet (2): Smooth surface found superior Associated Structures of the Vertebrae: - Spinal Nerves: Branch off from the spinal chord at inter-vertebral spaces - Nucleus Pulposus: Centre portion of the inter-vertebral disks that provides cushioning - Composed mainly of water… when sleeping it reabsorbs water lost during the day, making you taller - Annulus Fibrosis: Outer portion of the intervertebral disks composed of ligaments - Serves to keep the pulposus in the centre of the disk - Does not wrap around entire circumference of pulposus  allows pulposus to burst  herniated disk - As a result, this puts pressure on spinal nerves causing pain, and also making them project  pulposus - Since the pulposus absorbs most of the pressure of the body, this in turn makes it painful to move Differences in Vertebrae: - Cervical Vertebrae: Have transverse foramen, and are the smallest in structure - Thoracic Vertebrae: Have a beak-like spinous process - Lumbar Vertebrae: Have a hatchet-like (thick) spinous process - Considered ‘typical’vertebrae - Superior Facets: Face superior (up) and posterior (towards back) - inferior Facets: Face inferior (down) and anterior (towards front) - Transverse Foramen: Holes where vertebral vessels run through - Vertebral Artery: Branches off of the heart, runs from the transverse foramen to the Circle of Willis - Circle of Willis: Acircle of vessels with many tributaries that distributes blood throughout the brain - When there is not adequate blood flow, you pass out - This allows more blood to move to the brain as you are Atlas andAxis: - Known as the first two cervical vertebrae (c1 / c2) -Are considered atypical vertebrae - c1 (atlas): the ‘yes’bone due to superior articulate processes located in the sagital plane, where skull sits on - The occipital condyles of the skull articulate with the superior articulate facets of theAtlas - Condyle: Rounded edge of a bone, part of an a
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