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Sept 08 - Day One.pdf

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Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 2801A/B
Terry Biggs

The Determinants of Health September-08-11 Income influences health - the more money you have, the healthieryou are. Income is one of the most importantdeterminantsof health 5:09 PM Health improves at each step up the income & social ladder There is a gradientin health status. A gap b/w the rich & poor exists for The determinantsof health are factors & influences that shape the most types of illnesses & for almost all causes of death health of individuals& communities. Our health depends on an These studies show that health is a functionof both the absoluteaverage interactionof: income of a country(GNP per capita)and its income distribution(the Where we live, work, play degree to which income is equitablydistributedamong different Our homes, schools, workplaces, communities socioeconomicgroups). Social supports - family, friends, community Behaviour Genetics Determinants: Income & social status Social support networks Education Employment & working conditions Social enviros Physical enviro Gender People's Perception of how Healthy they are Culture Personal health practices& copingskills Health child development Health services Biology & geneticendowment There is no single most importantfactor responsible for the health of populations. It is the interactionof behavior,biology& the environmentsthat is important. The environment modifies the effects of individualbehavior & biology. Social status refers to a person's rank or social position in relation to A Social Support Network means: others - their relative importance. Higher socio-economicstatus, however Having family or friends available in times of need measured (often by income, but also by educationor occupation), correlates Believing that one is valued as a provider of support when positively w/ good health. others are in need Social Status affects health by determiningthe degree of controlpeople have Support from families, friends & communitiesis associated w/ over life circumstances. It affects their capacity to act & make choices for better health.The importance of effective responses to stress & themselves. Higher social position & income act as a shield against disease having the support of family & friends provides a caring & With higher income, one has the ability to: supportive relationshipthat seems to act as a buffer. Purchase adequate housing, food & other basic needs Social support networks can affect: Make more choices& feel more in controlover decisions in life Psychological/emotionalhealth FEEL IN CONTROL FOR BASIC GOOD HEALTH Physical health This suggests that whatever processes are at work to determine health are Health perceptions operating at all levels of society, & that the pathway to poor health is not jus How individuals& families manage disease & illness one of material deprivationarising from poverty. Stoddart, Greg L., The Challengeof Producing Health in Modern Economics:, On average, people w/ higher education are more likely to: working paper 46, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, p.51. Be employed Have jobs w/ highersocial status Unemployment & underemployment are associated w/ poorer health. Have stable incomes People w/ more controlover their work circumstances & fewer stress-related Higher educationrelated to health: demands on the job are healthier& often live longer than those in more Increases financial security stressful or risky work. Workplace hazards & injuries are significant causes of Increases job security & satisfaction health problems Equips people w/ the skills they need to identify & solve Unemployment- People who have been unemployed for any significant individual & group problems amount of time tend to die earlier & have higher rates of suicide & heart Increases the choices & opportunitiesavailable to people disease. Spouses of unemployed workers experience increased emotional Improves "healthliteracy" - abilityto gain access to info & problems. Children, especially teens, whose parents are unemployed are at a services that may keep ourselves & our families healthy higher risk of emotional & behavioural problems. Recovery of physical & Can unlock the innatecreativity& innovationin people, & mental health after unemployment is neither immediate nor complete add to our collectiveabilityto generatewealth On average, as educationincreases, self-rated health status Social Environments - Values & norms of a society influence the health of improves. Only 18% of respondentsw/ grade school rated their health as excellentcompared with 38% of university individuals& populations. A supportivesociety is stable, safe & respects diversity. Peopleenjoy good working relationships& communitiesare closely graduates. knit. Health is better when people have emotional support & participate in One way to measure well-being is to ask people to rate their own health.This self-rated health status summarizes physical& their society. mental health as experienced by the individual, accordingto The array of values & norms of a society influence the health and well-being of individualsand populationsin varying ways. their own values. A supportive society that reduces or avoids many potential risks to good health provides: Physical Environment HP Units 1 & 2 Page 1
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