IR 2701E Lecture Notes
8 September 2011
The International System
International Relationschangeswithmodernization. Therefore youseecultureschange,
o States must agree on aimsand objectives.Theymust beseekingto advanceand
they must agree on adegree ofmaintenance.
o Need an appropriate structureforparticipatingnumber of statesProduceastructure
appropriate for thenumber ofstates,thegeography & torespect sovereigntyand to
allowhe proper distribution ofpower between/within the states.Must allowa
hierarchy to exist withinstates.Theremustbeastructure.
o Procedures to achieve aimsand objectivessoweneed norms,policies,rules &
th institutionsto help implementation.Theymustagree ontheirtogetherness.
19 Century great powers
Dominated by Great Britain,France,Austria-Hungry,Prussia/German Empire,and Russia
Honorable mentions:US,Japan, China,much ofAfricaand SouthEast Asia
Some of them began tochallengethecoreasweexperiencedchanges
States/Eliteshad very little respect towardscitizens.Thereforeyouseeachangein
worldviewsand we become rooted inrealism.
Assumes the natural state of the worldisand Anarchicsystem
Composed of sovereign states whoalwaysstrugglefor power
States act to maximize their share ofpower andsecurity.Soyouseeone state lookingfor
more security,and that leadsthesurroundingstatestofeelinsecureand then youget
conflict asa natural state of affairs.
i.e. perpetual conflict
Many believesthat thiswasthe waytheyhadtodoit.“Internationalsystemisat zerosum”
Late 19 /20 Centurieswe see liberalismand Marxismbeginningtoaffect IR.
Assumes the system in Anarchic
But at the same timerejects conflict asanaturalorder.
Sayswe need cooperation to do stuff
If we work together peacefully we’lladvancedemocracy,respect for litigation/law.
Peaceful advance of interests
o International Law
o International Organizations
o Free Trade They are idealists ex.WoodrowWilson. Whatcame ofthat? AdestroyedLeague of Nations.
Thought that the time toredo wasafter WWI.Wanted todoawaywithbalanceofpower
Grouch Marxism and Marxism
The counter to Marxism isliberalism
The International System iscreatedbyWorldCapitalism
Emphasis lies in classdivision and exploitation,whichtrumptheroleofsovereignstates.
Classconflict drives world politics
The Cold Wars
Multi-polarity reduced to bipolarity
Russia/USA.Then China became mixed intoitalltorivalRussialike theUS.Sonowyou
have another force at work in the international system.
Decolonization:The Bandung conference
Small countriesannouncing that their interestsshould betaken seriously.Theywere
concerned about the potential of anuclear war.Theyshould haveasayin IRsincethey
represent a lot of the population.
The Scramble for Africa (Imperialisation)
Nobody wasable to maintain hisorher empiressoAfrostatesquestioned theInternational
System.They had no say.Resentment ensuredbecausetheyhad toabidebyrules.
“Truthsthat could notbe refuted” ex.ISisanarchic
Either a competitive or acooperativesystem
IS isdriven by classconflict,organization
ArguesthatIR politicsis not shaped byunderlyingforcesrather our perceptionsofthem.
International system isa socialconstruct
Post colonialism /Tricontinentalism
o Political discourse or Worldview ofthepeopleofthe developing world.
o Reconsideration of the historyofthecolonized from their perspective
o Consideration of how thishistoryhas shaped thecontemporaryworldview ofthe
formerly colonized people
Idea ofunderstanding and lookingattheworldfromtheother.
When cold war ended the focusemerged together at theforefront oftodaysissues.
International Relationsand the world ontheeveoftheFrenchrevolution
Fought by the HapsburgDyansty
Fought by the Anti-Hapsburg Coalition:
o France o Dutch republic
o Some German States
Emergedthroughthe Holy Roman Empire
Holy roman Empire:
o Headed by an Emperor and verydivided.Hapsburgand anti-Hapsburg
o Who wanted to expand
o French were concernedbecausetheyweresurrounded bySpain,Germaniccountries
and the Hasburgs.
Great war.Population wasdecreased.TheHapsburgdynasty wassplit and theascendance
of the Spanish empire which at thetimewasverylarge.
Peace of Westphalia
The end ofthe 30year war
Treaty of Munster
o Catholic opponents
Treaty of Osanbruck
o Protestant opponents
Significance of Peace ofWestphalia in IR
1.Established a territorial baselineofEuropeuntil1789(Frenchrevolution)
West Spanish empire,Netherlandswereseparated
France waslead of anti-Hapsburgforcestheytook nothingfrom Spain.Only
took from Austria &HolyRoman Empire tostrengthen their easternborders.
They ended updefeatingSpain and thereforedefeating the Hapsburgs.
Therefore, they weresetfor futureexpansion.
2.Validated the existence of the modern state toIR
o Armed Forces
The state ismorethanjust an expression oftheruler’swishes.Theart
of the government layinrecognizingwhatpeoplewant and actingin
A bureaucracyunderstandsRaison d’état.Marshallsthe resourcesof
the state inorder toimplement what the peoplereallywant.
The territorialsplitsprevented onedynasty fromtakingover.
3.Introduced a RationalTheory ofstatecraft
o Kernel of modern state systemwasinplace
Freedom of state tochooseownreligion
Precedent for guaranteeingpeace
Precedent for congress Procedures for maintainingpeace
4. Arguablyestablished the principleofsovereignty
o The idea that all statesareequal.Yousee itintheHoly RomanEmpire.The
Hapsburgslost power over German States.TheGerman princes weren’t beholden to
a higher authority and could createtheir own religionsand own foreign diplomacy.
Resulting in the state becomingthehighestrulingpower,and some tensionsat their
You can see the startingpoint of internationallaw.Seeagreements/regulationsthatapplytoall
statesin regardsto fairnessand equality.Nobodycould beconsidered aboutthislaw; ifsomeone
disobeyed it otherscould join a coalitiontopunishhimor her.
Over the next century and a half you see anewsystemcomingintoeffect.
18 century-150 yearsofwar and you see5statesemergethat would cometodominate IRinthe
Idea of“le boioe” (sp?) believed thathehadabsolutecontrolofthestate,that God
appointed him.Etc etc. Divine rightofKings.
Called himself “The SunKing”
Convinced France wasleading state ofEU.Hewasleadingruled.Hishousewasthedynasty.
Dominated for half a century due tohispersonality and power over France.
France:resources:18millto 19millpeoplerichin agriculture.Pretty much hadtheabilityto
o With the helpof Jean-Baptiste Colbert theystrengthened the Frenchindustrial
industry and dominatedthe economy
o Increase army
o Established a pattern ofwarfarethat would befollowed byEuropetillFrench
Louishasdiplomats all over the world,andtried tobringotherrulersunder theFrenchrule
Sought to expand hisrule. Dutchwerealarmed at this.Hedoesn’t likethemanyways
because theydon’t havea king
William of Orange
William wasappointed Stadtholder (chiefmagistrate)and captain-generaloftheDutch
forcesin 1672 to resist the Frenchinvasion oftheNetherlands.
Headed Dutch state. Wasreally threatenedbyFrance
Recognized power and attempted toorganizeacoalitiontoresist the French and createa
balance of power
Triedto prevent the dominance ofonepower
By 1688the Dutch werejoined byAustriansand someGerman states
League of Augsburg Organized by Louise XIVto provokewar withAustria
William married MaryIIdaughter ofJamesII.Williamwasinvited toinvade England
because theydidn’t want Louise totakeover
He forced LouisXIV to make peacein 1678andthen concentrated onbuildingupa
European alliance against France.In 1677hemarried hiscousin Mary,eldest daughter of
James,Duke of York,the future JamesII.Themarriagewasintendedtorepair relations
between England and The NetherlandsfollowingtheAnglo-Dutchwars.
Glorious revolution:William marchingon England and JamesIIretreats.England’spowers
LouisXIV refusesto recognize WilliamII asKing. Wants torestore JamesII
Significant in struggle for power/England’sindependence
1697: Peace guaranteeing protestantssuccession marked strengthof Britain whoenlarged
their navy andfinancial system.Williamcreated a constitutionalmonarchyand was
powerful becauseKingWilliam the3 wasKingaswellashead oftheDutch.
LouisXIV fought a very strategic war butcametoan agreement causehenowhadhiseye
on another prize:
The Spanish empire
1700CharthsII,the rulerof the Empirepassed awaywithnomaleheir
Louis14 triedto take itbecause hisfrist wife wasthesister ofCharles.Sherenouncesthe
Emperor Leopold I triedto claim it toobecauseheisrelated totheHapsburgs
30yearsagoLeopold and Louise had agreedtosplit it
CharlesII modified hiswilland left ittoPhilipD’Anjou.
o Isthe younger grandsonofLouis
o Had to renounce hisright totheFrenchthroneinordertoget it
o If he refuses it the Leopold’ssonwould get it
Leopold isupset and invades SpanishItalytoseizelandsfor himself
King William doesn’t want their sontobe SpanishKing
Other countriesalso don’t like thefactthat Franceisappearingstronger and stronger.
Grand Alliance of the Hague
Dutch They fight Spanish succession.War.
Treaties of Utrecht (1713) and Rastadt (1714)
France recognize Glorious Revolution
Renounce union of France and Spain
North AmericanTerritory returned toBritain
o Hudson’s Bay
o Acadia (Nova Scotia)
Swedish Empire (1700)
Doesn’t want Russian to use their water
Peter the Great
Goes toSweden,exploitsPoland’sand Denmark’sambitionsagainst Sweden
Diverts hisinterest fromRussia
Russia isable to form his country.Getsforeignexpertsin toadvisehim.
New Russian capital in St. Petersburg.DesignsitalongthelinesofLouiscastlein Versailles.
Builds it along a river that Russia had toevacuate. Itsshowingthatthey’renotleaving.
Battle of Poltova (1709)
Shows Russian reforms
Europe nowtakes Russia seriously
o Baltic provinces
o Influence in Poland
o Influence in North German states
o Gain power to be active independently
German Statesca. 17 Century
Most ofPrussia’sstates are centered around Belgium
Ruled by Halenzolerbergs,difficultyindefendinglands
1640:Frederick William the great elector iselected.
o He isa realist but wantsa centralist state.
o Efficient bureaucracyto run thisstate and astrong armytodefendthe state.
o Turned hisarmy into anefficient machine.Usesit to centralize the state.
o A few people succeededhim:
Frederick III of BrandenburgakaFrederick IKingofPrussia
Frederick William I 1740:Frederick the II akaFrederick theGreat
o In many waysisproductoftheEnlightened
o Spoke to philosophersand intelligent men
o Attacked Machiavelli’swritings
o Wasa realist
o Aware that Prussia was exposed and inadefenselessposition inthe centre of
Charlesthe 6 of Austriadies.
Haspragmatic succession to recognizeMariaTheresaaslegitimate ruler ofAustria
Frederick the Great signsit
Frederick ordershisarmiesto invade Silesiain order toshapePrussiaproperly.It’sa
defensive move against Saxony.War ofsuccession.Justified itbyusingthereason of
maintaining a balance ofpower withinEurope.
Acquisition of Silesia wasprofound for Prussia because it had a large population of Germans
Tipspower in Prussiasfavour
Frederick the greatsmotives mayhavebeen good
War of Austrian Succession:1740-1748
France,Spain,Bavaria,Saxony alltook advantageofthesituation
In 1741 -1742 Hungarianshelped her win.Sheheld ontill1748untilpeacetalks.
Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)
Confirmedterritorialstatusquo ofWestern Europe
Confirmed Prussian conquest of Silesia
Secured Austrian Succession
Prussia then became anally of Austriabutnobodyreallytrusted them
Great Powersof the world at the mid-point ofthe18 century
In 1756Frederickthe 2 isfeeling rather isolatedand alone
The 7-year war
He invadesSaxony and the seven year war ensues
Austria,France,Russia, Saxony, Sweden,and Spain
Convention ofWestminster:January 16,1756 2 diplomatsmeet and sign
o Guarantee possessions
o Agreementthat neitherside would attack theother
British succession passed to Theresa’sgrandsonGeorgethe1 whoistheelector of
King George the 1 waselector ofHanover.2 cousinofAnne
French were very isolated thereforeleadingthemto enter intoaBonaFide alliancewith
Russia wasbetrayed.Said if theywenttowar England would beontheir side
What started asa little war in Saxonyexploded intoahugeone
On thecontinental theatre Frederickthe great earnshisname.Prussiaforceseveryone
o Hisefforts were subsidized byBritain
o Peace on continent made in 1763
North America Priorto the 7-yearswar
North America ismostly where colonial war was won
Britainused continentalwar to keepFrenchoccupiedin Europetobeunabletoput forcesin
NA or India
British sent out 40000 soldiers
With their dominant naval powerstheyblockaded Frenchportsand cut ofcoloniesfromre-
Robert Clive after Battleof Plessey,India,1756so Britaintakesover
Treaty of Paris,1763
o Ohio River valley
o Eastern half of the misssissppiValley
o French Influence fatally weakened
NowBritain isa global empire /power and remainsuntiltheend ofthe 2 worldwar
Europe after the 7 yearswar
Russian forcesdefeat Prussians
Seek alliance with St. PeterboroughtocontainRussia
Turnto Austria whoisHostile Russia made no territorial conqueststheywerealeadingpower incoalitionagainstPrussia.
Reptulian became amazing.Theybecomealargepower.Haveunfathomablehuman and
territorialresources that haven’t been touchedbythewar.
Prussia isHostile towardsAustria,afraidthatthey’llcomeforSalasia
Prussia afraid that Russia will playAustriaand Prussiaagainst eachother
France ishostile towards Britain becausetheylost moreterritorythananyoneelse.Now
their resources are far more limited.Spend 20yearsrebuildingwithEngland.Disappear asa
The French Revolution and the CongressofVienna
The French Revolution
Began in 1789and within 4 yearsby1793allofEuropewasat war withtherevolution and
thiswasa conflict that lasted till 1815.
Extremely significant period in historyofEuropean diplomacyyousee aneed for
coordination,a balanceof power (closer cooperationbetween great powers).
A result of thiscoordination isdiplomaticaction. Bringsaround theideawetalked about
afterthe Treaty of Westphalia.
o Rulesof Conduct
o Discussion between states
o Working balance of power/Equilibriumofpowers
o Statesmen who realizedthat theycould controland shapeevents they didn’t just
have to respond to events.Statesworkingtogether to controltheir ownpaths.
IR began to acquire a new ideologicaldimension yousee
o Dynastic interestsemerge
o Ideas beginto change and thisaffectsthewaystatesinteract withone another.
o States aren’t only aligningtorestoreterritorialequilibrium,they’re tryingto fightfor
their own ideasnow
o This ideological dimension wasn’t apparent at the time
o August 1789
Creation of Constitutionalmonarchy
o September 1791
Creation of the Frenchrepublic
The period of revolution reflected absolutist institutionsv
Impact of the French revolution
o Liberal Revolution
The role of the state insociety
Values of a democratic society o Nationalist revolution
Sovereignty of thenation
Concernswerethat the idealsand valuesofothercountrieswould seepintotheir own
Birth of Modern nationalism
What you see isrevolutionariesbeginningtoclaimideastobeuniversal
o People are sovereign and theyallhavevariousrightsand duties
o The French were defeated andthe Frenchmonarchywasinalot of debtand unable
to put itsfinanceson a sound basis.
o The French were supportingtherevolutionariesin theAmericanrevolutionssothey
were getting allthese ideas aboutfreedomand liberalismfrom the US and were
beginning to doubt theirKing.
o These ideas are filteringintoFrance.
o King isabsolutist and doesn’t seemtodoanything abouttheFinancialcrisis
o People begun to use thisopportunityagainst LouisXVI
They argued that thegovernment should protecttherightsoftheindividual
Amidst thisthe revolution beginsStormingoftheBastille14July1789
o Declaration of rightsof man and citizen that stated thateachman hadaright…
o Drafted a constitution thatwasdesigned toprotect these rights,and establisha
o They kept Louise XVI inpower but madehimaccountableto the people ofFrance
o Soallmayor power was distributed amongagovernment
o The rest of Europe wasn’t toohappyabout this.Theyweren’tused totheideasthat
o The Intellectualsof Europewereenthused bythis.
o In German statesyou see alotofsupport
o In England you see a lotofsupport too
Autumn of 1791, August27 Declaration ofPilnitz
o Emperor Leopold II ofAustria
o King Frederick William IIofPrussia
o Both begin to feel pressuretosaysomethingabout what’shappeningin France with
Sothey issue a declaration,Pilnitz.Theypromise tointervenein Franceto
protect the Royal familyand preservethemonarchy.
They willonly do itifalltheother mayorpowersofEurope agree to it.
Britain doesn’t agree becausetheyhavea constitutionalmonarchy.
In Francethiswasperceived verydifferently.France felt that it was
surrounded by nationswhowereseekingtoundotherevolution
o April1792 the French declarewar onAustria.They feel asif bywar they’re
preserving therevolution against the other Nations.
NowthisbringstherevolutionariesinFrance topower.Sopopular loyalty
isn’t directed atthe kinganymore.It isnowdirected at theNations. o The Secondrevolution isthen emboldenedbythedefeat of Austria/Prussia who
invaded France. France then conquered Frankfurtand the Rhine lands.
Thisisthen when revolution becomesathreat toother powers,becausethe
French revolution isnowreshapinggeographicborders.
France announcedthat theywould helpanyonewhowantsto overthrow
o French invade Holland and GB
o What you see isthat the Frenchrevolution is nowspillingout over theBordersof
France and French idealsarebeingimposed onother countries.
Thisleadsto the creation of the First coalition.
Austria,Prussia,GB,Sardinia,and Holland against France.
For the French itsnot longer about protectingtheir land itsaboutprotectingtheir ideals.
The coalition wantsto overthrown Franceandre-institutes aMonarch.
The French thenexecuteLouise the16 ,and begintoorganizeamasswar.
Everyone essentially getsinvolved inthewar,all economicproduction isforthewar,and
peoplewillparticipate in the war.ThewholeFrenchnationbecomesmobilized todefend
their new way of life.
The people are called Sans-Culottes
Ideology and Nationality are all wrapped intoone.
The Great terror isinstigated and peoplestart toget arrested for notbeingrevolutionary
Support begins to wanebecause peoplearen’t sureifthey’refightingfor their freedom
Spread of the Revolution and French conquest(1789-1794)
Political developments vs.Economictroubles
Result of these frustrations/resentmentsin otherstatescreatesnationalismand therefore
the nationsfighting against France don’t likethefact that they’reoccupied and youbeginto
see Nationalism in other countriestoobut inopposition toFrance.
Period of instability to own government.Frenchwereconcerned thatsomeanti-
revolutionary forces at home wouldwinmajorityinthelegislature.
o Abolished hereditary privilege
o Peasantswere allowed tobecomeproperty owners
o New political system of governmentbased onequality.Allproperty ownersare
French want to stay theway theyare.Preservetheidealsoftherevolution sotheyturn to
o Brilliant military leader.Proveshimself inbattle.
o Ability to absorb every piece ofinformation thatpassed before him.
o He demanded nothing lessthanloyalty
o He essentially stagesa coupeand becomestheleader ofFrance.
o Essentially doesthisby sayinghewillpreservetherevolution.
o Firmlybelieved that hiswildest dreamsofconquestand empirewould becomea
reality. Thiswould be hisdownfall. o Used everything he could toget hisenemiestoside withhim.
o Delegated very little authorityand established asecret police
o Allthese idealsof revolution aregoingout theWindow.
o Created Napoleonic Code:
Secure French societyagainstinternalchallenges
The peasantswereconcerned theywould loseeverythingtheygained
France had become a dominant power.
Napoleon dismantled the Holy Roman Empire
He created larger states out of thesmaller German states
In 1804 he made himselfEmperorofFrance.Napoleonthe1 . st
o Good army at hisdisposal
o Things are well within the country
o BUT he wasjealous of Britainnavy
o He wants allthat Britainhasfor himself
o He attempts to fight the restofEuropetoconquer.
o He exploitedthe secularidealofnationalismtoget the people ofFrance to fightfor
o He saw the power in NationalismindefendingFrancesempire
o Nowhe exploitsthisideal
Major Battlesand Treaties of theNapoleonicWars
o Trafalgar,October 1805
o Austerlitz,December 1805
Napoleon defeatsRussiaand Austria
Hapsburg territoriesdivided amongNapoleonsGermanicallies(Bavaria,
o Jena,Oct 1806
o Friedland,June 1807
DefeatsRussia and Prussia
Treaty of Tilsit (July)
Prussia losesterritoryinwestern germany and Poland – New
o Wagram,July 1809
Austria loses territorytoFrance,Bavaria,GrandDuchyof Warsaw and Russia
He beganto govern Europe by placingfamilyeverywhere.
o Brother Jerome –King of Westphalia
o Brother Louis– king of Holland
o Brother Joseph – King of Naples,later Spain
o Son Eugene – King of Cisalpine Republic(easternedgeofAegean Sea) He imposed the Napoleonic codeonmanystateswithinhisempire.Thisallowshimto
Thiswasn’t allgreat because he wascomposing an armyonnationsagainst the willofthe
people.Aswe saw earlier they havetheabilitytoretaliate throughtheir ownNationalism
French Empire, 1810:
Napoleon established a continentalalliance/system
He tried to convince allhisalliesto stopcooperatingwithBritainand stopsupplyingthem
He thought thiswould cripple Britain
Due totheir vast Navy they still had accesstoforeignmarketsand theyweren’t crippled.
Thissystem did more harm to France and EuropethanBritainbecauseofthelack oftrade
Thisincreasesresentment of Napoleon
Germanic states see thatthey havethesame idealsand areallin thesamesituationsso
they begin to unite in their own nationalism
Prussia wasonly defeated not conquered and wasled byPrussianmilitaryleaderswhowere
only there because of their birthright
Francesarmy wasled bypeople whohad meritnotbecausetheywereborn intoit
SoPrussia begun to reform their army
o Did awaywith inhumane punishment
o Sought to inspire patriot icybetweenthe soldiers
o Opened up officer positionstocommoners
Napoleon’sEmpire 1812 Russian Campaign
o Russia withdrawsfrom Continentalsystemand France declareswar.
o 600 000 French come out tofight and theyactuallymake ittothegatesofMoscow,
nowthey’re spread out, and heisforcedtowithdraw throughthewinterwhich
proves bad for hisarmies
o Comes back to raise another armyof350000
Napoleonsarmiesare inexperienced and thecoalitiondefeatshim,
He isforced into exile and The treatyofParis1814issigned
They didn’t want to create resentment withtheFrenchpeople
Instated a French Monarchy LouisXVIII and allowed it towork alongside theother
In March of 1815 Napoleon escapesmarcheson Paris.Thearmieswhoaresent against him
turn and fight with him.
He isdefeated bythe Alliesand exiledtotheIsland ofSt. Helenain theArctic.
Lasted from Sept 1814to June 1815
Fancy Balls, organized hunts,dinners,and abitofdiplomacy Aimsof Congress:
o End Napoleonic wars
o Reorganize Europe sothattheywould havetheresourcesto be strong enoughwhen
combined to balance theinterestsanddesiresofothers.
Ensure that Francewould notrestoretoHegemonyagain
o Ensure a Lasting Peace
o The congressactually one met once.Tosign thetreaty.Theyalldidsmallformalor informal
gatheringsof various representatives.
o Principle powers:Britain,Austria,Prussia,Russia, and France
o Principle architects wereMetternichand Catlereagh
o They wanted to create asystemthatwould confirm thereadinessand theabilityof
the statesto resist any universaldomination byonepower
o Thismeant creating a systemorequilibriumofforces
o Something fluid that would accommodate ittochanginginternationalforces.
o Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh
o Wanted to make Britainthe arbiter ofEuropeanaffairs.
o Britain wasan island anddidn’t face thatmuch
o He waslessconcerned withinternaleventsbetween states
o More concerned with affairsbetween countries
o To the end of theday allhewanted wasapeaceful Europe
o Goal wasto get a weakened France,and restraintheirpowers.
o He didn’t want splendid isolationheonlywanted to be involved withEurope if
Britain would be threatened orifthesituationcalled for it. Theywould have an aloof
o Prince KlemensVon Metternich
o Fled hishomeland Poland duringtheFrenchrevolution
o He wasnoble growing up sohesaw theeffectsof the Frenchrevolution
o He said you shouldn’t leavepower inthehandsofmasses.People weren’tprepared
or equipped to lead.
o Became minister of AustrianForeign Affairsin1809
o Smart, spoke 5 languages,charismatic
o Real-politic:All hisdecisionscamedown to whether or not they would maximize
o Hesnot talking aboutAustriabecomingadominant power,butrather about getting
them enoughpower so thatthey’reabletomanipulate events.
o Europe, 1814:
o Austria wasquite exposed.
o If any of Prussia,Russia, and France get caughtinwar itismore thanlikelythatit’ll
be fought on part of their own land.Sotheir safety isdependant onEurope’s
o Competition amongst Germanicstates
o Austria wascompromised ofmanystatesafraid thatthey’re going towant to
separate. o Prussia came out very powerful andbothAustriaand Britianwanted tokeepPrussiain
o Britianmade sure to dominate thesysteminorder tokeepPrussiain power.
o Tsar Alexander I,Russia.Very veryautocratic.Made allhisdecisionsonhis own.Very
religious wanted everyone else toadopt areligiousbase.
o Karl August Con hardenberg
Realized that Prussiassurvivalwasdependant onEurope’sstabilityand
o Wilhelm con Humnoldt
Realized Prussia isexposed and wantedtoorganizethe Germanicstatesinto
a defensive systemsothattheycan allcontributetothe‘greater good’
o France:Prince CharlesMaurice deTalleyrand
o Political and diplomatic talents,but alsoan opportunist
o Wasa great participant in maintainingthepeaceofEurope becausehewanted to
maintain their power
o Deliberationsat Vienna:
o A lot of statesthat didn’tlikeFrance,Prussia,Russia,
Partition of France
Taking away authorities
Taking away military
Getting France to takeawayindemnity
o Austria,Britain,and France
Didn’t want to imposetooharshapeaceontheFrench
Wanted to reincorporateFrance intoEuropethroughreconciliatory peace
Austria and Britainlooked at thecontinent and realized thatFrance wasa
weaker powerbut noticed that Russiaisnowthe greatestthreat tothe
stability of Europe.
They were concerned withmakingthebalanceofpowersableto weighout
Thisworked to Francesbenefit.Said thatminorstateswerebeing ignored in
the peace talks.
When the questionoftheterritorialarrangementofPrussia,Russia arose
they were concerned and BritainandAustriabroughtFrance tothetable.
o The treaty of Parisrestored Frenchborderstowhatthey had been in1792,and the
second treaty returnedthemtowhattheywerein 1790and alot offineswere
imposed on France.
o The countriessurroundingFrance arereorganized to bemore powerful tocontain
o Prussia formed an assemblytomeet inFrankfurt; Austria would sit at thehead of
the table. The idea of a German confederationcame forward.
Thisallowed for constant realignment withintheGerman confederationto
maintain an equilibrium
Liberal ideas weren’t taken totheassembliesbecause other leaderspicked
leadersnot bythe people. o TerritorialSettlement fromVienna:wantedtostabilize the countriesandmediate
some of the fearsof the states.
Russia created theindependent kingdomofPoland.Whichwasreally a
Russian protector becausetheRussianCzarsaton the throne of Poland too.
The map of Europeisbeingredrawnbut noneofthe people were consulted,
The leadersjust threwdown borderswheretheywanted.
Britain and Russia werepowerful
France wasgeographicallyexposed sotheywanted peace
o The system wanted abalance of power.In ordertolook at this systemofpower youhaveto
ask yourself what ispower?
o There isno parody between the countriesintermsofpower.
o The powershad to worktowardssomeformofbalance
o The statesof Viennadidn’t want tobalance thepowersper say
o They wanted to be able to balance resources to the demandsof the international
arena.Tried to create aflexiblesystemthatwould maintainthe politicalreality of
the post-Napoleonic order.Eachstate hadtorecognize that theywereapart ofthis
o What emerged wasa systembased onparticipation,
29 September 2011
War andrevolution:The concert of Europeand theCrimean war.
Re-alignment of territory,they hadtoredrawthemapof Europe
They wanted to preventwars
Interstate system isneeded to allowleaderstodiscussissuestoprevent thesepotential
Signing of the quadruple alliance:Nov20,1815.
o Britain, Prussia,Russia, Austria
o Regular meeting ofthe leaders
o Setsa foundation of thecongresssystem
o They discussed mattersofmutualinterestandconcern
o Wanted to resolve difference onthetableratherthan thebattlefield
o Leadersthought it wastheir prerogativetointervenein the internalaffairseven if
it’s another state.They felt theywerein asuperiorposition.
o Called the concert systembecausetheyweresupposed to be acting inconcert to
o Thissystem maintainedpeacebetween 1815and1854
o During thisperiod no greatpower went towar withanother great power
o The powerswould not actuallyact inconcert.Soit’s misleading.
o Congresssystem isalso misleadingbecausetheydidn’t meetregularly
o There wasagreementbetween powersonhowmeetingsshould beconducted Trend:1815-1848
Britainand Russia weredominant powers
o They didn’t really needtomaintainallianceswithother countriesinorder to
o They had the luxuryto choosewhen theywanted to make alliances or bea part of
France,Prussia and Austria were dependant onalliances.
o The problem with thisisthattheyweren’t alwaysableto attainthe alliancesthey
o Prussia wasthe weakest and themost exposed
East of Prussia lay Russiawhowasamilitarypower head
Didn’t have a lot ofpower andcouldn’treallydomuch
o French wererevisionist power
Very aware of badfeelingsthattheir neighborshad after the Napoleonic
Didn’t want torisk beingostracized by other powers
Never satisfied withstatusquoafter Vienna
Constantly frustrated with the fact thattheycouldn’treallymake many
alliances because theyweren’t trusted.
o Austria had many internalweaknesses
Era of nationalism sotheyhadtokeepnationalistictendencies in check
The 20yearsof Napoleonicwarfareprettymuchleft them bankrupt
Externally suffered muchlike France
Half of it wasin theGerman confederation
Quite vulnerable given itsgeography
Russia on one side,France ontheother,Prussiatothenorth.
Alwayswanted to maintainabalance/equilibriumof power inorderto stayin
the safe zone of Prussia/Russia
Metternich dominated thesysteminorder tomakeit work forAustria.
Wanted to make suretheymaintained power oftheGerman confederation
Metternich needed tocontroltheconcert,ensurethat equilibriumwas
o Eastern question
The French Revolution Threat
People became enlightened,no longer believed in divine will
You see a middle classemerge,become stronger,protestexclusionfrompoliticalright
Start demanding more political rightsfor thelarger population
Product of anextension of educationtothelower classes
Idea thatthe government wasaccountabletothepeople
Previously there wasa belief thattheKing/Queen isdivine becauseGodput themthere
People begin to rebel against thisidea,and youget revolutions Liberalism
People start to look for constitutionalguarantees/lawstoprotect theirrights
o Individual liberty
o Equal rights
o Constitutional guarantees
o Protection of individualrights
Forces are beginningtochangebecauseelitesarestillinpower and they’re
People are advocating that they should beorganized based onculturalboundaries
Ethnic makeup of Hapsburg Empire:At least 15different cultures
Nationalism and Liberalism werethreatstothestatusquoafter thecongressofVienna
Thisaffects the relationship between thepowersand threatensthebalanceofpower
Agents of Conservatism:
Student in Strasburg and witnessed effectsof French revolution first hand
Associated revolution withviolence and disorder
Believed in law and order,and internationalpeace
Thought that Europewould onlybe at peaceiflegitimate sovereignswere
Veryreligious,sawrevolution,and liberalismasan affronttohisbeliefs
Creates the Holy Alliance:
Russia,Austria,and Prussia – Conservativestates
Thisalliancebelieved thatthestatesshould bealigned based onthe
Promised mutualassistance ifreligion,peace,or justicewas
Britain didn’t want tojoin theholyalliance becausetheir leader didn’t
think it wastheir businesstoget involved withtheinternalaffairsof
o They wereboth afraid ofrevolution,and wereaware of theinevitability of change.
Recognized that theyhad toovercomesomeoftheshortcomingsof the
weaknesses of their own government
Very conservative and wanted tomakesurethatwhen changedidoccur it
Revolution wasunpredictableandcould bringaboutviolent change
They hoped to use theQuadrupleallianceas abodyof powersto interfere
when forcesof changeemergedelsewhere
Sowith the Quad alliance,and theHolyalliance youdon’t reallyhavea
concert anymore. If revolutionaryforcesemergedtheywould affect theinterestsof one or
another great power.Notallofthem.
o Hapsburg monarchy wasdependant oncertainnoblestokeep their people incheck
and to maintain their powers
o Worried about lower classesand abilitytoexertpower over them
Concert isdesignedto keep Nationalforcesincheck,aswellasliberalistic forces (?)
o Czar wanted to use the systemtointerferein theinternalaffairsof other nationsto
deal with so called revolutionaryproblems
o For Austria thiswasa particular concern
o Metternich wantedto interfereanywherebut didn’t want to share that withanyone
o Wanted to negotiate amongthemselvesand agree to‘limited intervention’
1841-France allowed into NetherlandstoformBelgium,theyhadlimitedinterventionand the
French forceshad to withdraw from Netherlandssoon after.
Threat: Eastern Question
Who would hold influence over Balkansand West/NorthAfrica
Thisterritoryused to belong to theOttoman Empire
Soyouget the decline ofthe OttomanEmpire
o Austria had Balkans
o Russia got Crimean coast
o British were concernedwiththesechanges,wanted theOttoman Empireto stay
intact andthat African colonieswereexposed
o Didn’t want Russia to get more power.
Metternich wasconcerned that iftheOttoman Empirebrokeupitwould lead toanarchyor
o They were inthe best position totakeadvantageoftheOttoman weakness
o Desire to protect thefellowOrthodox Christiansin theOttoman empire
o They wanted to maintain theintegrityoftheottoman empireas a buffertokeep
Ottoman empire wasweak enoughnottoattackRussia,but strongenough
to prevent war longenoughfor Russiatomobilize
If Ottoman empirefelltoother more powerfulnationscould takeit up and be
a threat to Russia
1832,Ottoman Empire starts to face athreat fromwithinand an opportunityfor powersto
step in to take advantage of the ottomanweaknessopensup
o Russia forcesOttoman Empire tomake Peace withEgyptand inexchangethey’ll
have an alliance with the Russiagov
Promised to maintaintheintegrityoftheEmpire
Aslong asthey have adefensivealliance withTurkey
NowRussia isthe guarantor oftheOttoman Empire
o Austriansarerather alarmed at this.TheRussianinfluence isexpanding.
Austrianswant to maintaintheintegrityofthe empire o Both of the Austriansand Russianssecretly agreethatif theOttoman Empire
implodesthey willdivide upwhat’sleft amongthemselves.
o After this,Austria stillisn’t completelysatisfied
o SoAustria and British callcongressestodealwith futureproblemsin thenear east
o With allthese great powersgettinginvolved theTurksactuallyget emboldened
o Seek to punish Egypt for their march
o Ottoman Empire isnowweak,and thegreat powersallagree toaconference.
Russiaagreesto let alliance expirein 1941.
Sign a new treaty. Straits Convention 1841
Turkish Straitsfree ofWarshipinpeacetime
Keys to Concert of Europe
Statecraft limitedto Statesmen
o Businessand government werecompletelyseparate spheres.People who
understood the InternationalSystem/Diplomacy
Relative Ideological Homogeneity
o France and Britain were more liberal.
Consensus to maintain Vienna TerritorialSettlement
o If you’re going to alter somethingeveryonehad to agree toit.
o France wasthe only acceptation tothissincetheywanted toreacquiretheterritory
they lost, but were veryunwillingtovoice this opinion publicly.
Allthese powershad different competinginterests
They were alwayswilling,at thistime,toresort toacongressasalast resort beforegoingto
Revolutionsaltered the leadershipofthepowersand put thealliancesystem at risk.
1845,there wasa depression acrossEurope. Financialrepercussions.We alsoget growthin
citiesand massive unemployment.
Nownew ideasare circulating aboutthe relationbetween state and society
o What kind of role should thestate havein society?
We see the question of class emerge. Social change.
Though there isn’t muchrevolution and actuallychangewestillsomeslightdifferences
o Workersbeginto put forth demandsfor politicalrights.
o Classantagonizing deepens.Ownershipofprivate property suddenlybecomesa
o Nationalism also becomesaveryimportant issue
o We see the beginning ofthe ageofmasspolitics. Peoplebecomeinvolved inpolitics
and aren’t afraid to voicetheir opinions
o We see new ideasspread allover Europe
o Metternich isforced to fleaAustria
Louise Napoleon Bonaparte,and in1852declared himselfemperorNapoleonIII
Even though the revolutionswerehappening,bordersdidnotchange
The great powersdid not take advantageofanycountrieswhofaced problems The equilibrium of power remained
The most powerful statesRussia and Britainweremost powerful,and theydidn’treally
We have a new generation of Statesmen emergingwhoare nolonger willingtoadhereto
the collaborative principles of theViennaprinciples
The Crimean War 1854-1856
o Destroyed the concert/congresssystem
o Undermined theconfidence of theEuropean statement thatrespectinginternational
treatieswould preserve the peace.
o Cause of the war:
o Vienna system had changed and youhadnewstatesmen who had littlefaith in the
o Russian ambition wasto spread East soit wasseen asathreat
o Turkswere not willing to resolve totreaty.Theywerealsoreallyweak.
o Russia wasthe foremost champion oftheInternationalOrder
o Most powerful becauseof itsmilitaryand itseconomy.
o On one side France wantsto changeInternationalorder,and Russiawanted tomaintainit.
o Napoleon thought the only way tochangewastoweaken Russia
o Nowother statesare more concerned withRussia thanwithFrance
o Britainconcerned aboutRussian expansionbothon land and inthewater(Naval
o Concerned that the Russianshadgained controloftheconcert of Europe,and was
using it for their own best interest
o Britainpublic opinion had been encouragedtoperceiveRussiaasathreat.Journalists and
spokesmen created a climate for war. rd
o Crisisthat led to war wassparked byNapoleon the3
o If one state wasthe protector ofHolyplacesit gavethemthe right to interferewith
the Ottoman Empire
o Turksconcede theserightsfromRussiatoFrance.Russiaareannoyed atthis.
o British say that Russia wantstolower thestatusoftheEmpire tobethatof a Russian
o When war starts,Britainclaimsthatthisisadefensewar toprevent the destructionofthe
o Privately Britain had a fewother ambitions
Reduce Russian territorialpossessions
Cordon of Buffer States
Weaken Russia irreparably
Thisisn’t somethingyou can negotiate.OBVIOUSLYRussia would say no.lol
o Russia lost about half a millionpeople
o British were led by ineptand aged commanders
One of the commanderskept callingtheRussianstheFrench
o French have bettertroopleaders,and getbehind thewaralot more
o Information revolution –morepeoplehaveaccesstohave isgoing on.
o Scandal over how badlyBritishtroopswerefightingforcedthe resignation ofthe
current Prime Minister. o Florence Nightingale becomesfamouspromotesmedicine
o For 40yearsthe concertmaintainedthe peace,and then thewar revolutionized the
o Russia became a revisionist state
o Determined to breaktherestrictionsimposed on it bytheTreatyof Paris
o Russia withdrawsfrom European affairsfor about20years,asittriesto fix itself
o Gained the most power.SurpassesRussiaasthe most dominant power inEurope.
Why did the congresssystem fail?
o New leaderswho didn’tunderstand thesystem
o Napoleon III wantedto break upVienna
o British new leadersPalmerstonand Canningdidn’t knowwhat theyweredoing.
Didn’t knowhow to maintainstatecraft
6 October 2011
The Age of Bismarck
Europe after 1848
Revolutionsof 1848 brought aboutanewgenerationofStatesmen.Individualswhodidn’t
really appreciateViennafor whatit was.
They were ambitious fortheir owncountries,andnolonger willingtoadhereto
o Napoleon III
They were able to exploit the internationalsystemfor their own advancements
Howdid the Crimean war changetheinternationalsystem?
o Reduced the bi-polar hegemonyofRussiaand England
o Disrupted the congresssystemrevertedbacktoRealpolitik
o France basically becameadominant power onceagain
o Napoleon III lookedto break uptocongresssystemso that he could regainthe
territoriesthat were lostearlier on
o Russia washumiliated,and theyhavetoretreatand rebuildbecausethey’re looking
to be a revisionist power
o Britain washumbled
o Prussia-Austria were workingtosolidifytheir own territoriesandexpandintothe
More anarchic international system
o France o Prussia
New Domestic Forces
Public opinion:many stateshad free and compulsoryeducation.Napoleon forcedthemto
adopt compulsory education programs.Morepeoplewereabletoread thereforethey’re
able tobecome politically aware.Newspaper industryemerges.Newpressuresplaced on
the government. Also away to shownational interest.
o Ex.British PMresigned becausethearmiesbehaved ridiculouslyin war
o Military becomesan important pressuregroupbecausewesee revolutionsin
military technology andwarfareisbecomingfarmorecomplicated thanit hasinthe
pass. Military staff played amoreimportant role.The Militarybecomes
professionalized,and occupation.Statesmen nowhaveto consult military and they
have a say in what is happening.
o Irredentism + Revisionism:bringingtogethercommon cultures,language,and views
in a geographical logical location
o Social Darwinism: Societyfunction thesame asorganisms.The ideaof Natural
Selection.Survivalof the fittest.Nationsarein astate of permanent competition
and only the strongest nationwillsurvive.Strong pushfor ethnicities andcultures
that aredivided between statesshould beunited.
Problem: In an internationalsystemit’sdifficulttoreachaconsensusover
Nationalism wasan emerging viewinGermany
Duringthe revolution of 1848 nationalismwas oneoftheprimecausesofthe revolution in
Nationalists imbeddedwith ideasofliberalismwerehopingthattheycould unifythestates
throughan elected national governmentcalled theFrankfurt parliament
Wanted to replace German confederationwithgovernment.
Problem: lackedthe power to enforce thelawsorenforcerules
o Biggest German states:Prussiaand Austriadidn’t really like theParliament. Kaiser
Frederick William allowed thistobecreatedtoappease the liberalists.
Soit failed because Austria and Prussiasaidno
Sothe other nationsrealized thatinorder tounitetheywouldneed thesupport ofPrussia
The German Confederation
Negotiationsbegan at the congressofWestphalia
Austria wasone of the strongest ofpowersinit
o BUT barely survivedthewar of1848
o Weren’tcompletely German soiftheypromotedGerman imagethen everyoneelse
could promote their own. Prussia didn’t have the resource intermsofterritorybutdidhaveafewgood thingsgoing
o Population almost completely German
o Did have accessto some considerable economicand strategicterritory examplethe
Rhine land territorieswhichwasreallytheheartland of their industrial development
o 1819-Prussia helped createtheCustomsUnion:allowingtrade etc etc soit had
accessto good economic means
o Good leadership whoproved rather hardcorein the useoftheir power and decision
o Very strong military with acentralized government proved strong
o Bureaucracy: people whoworked withverylittlepay,outofasense of duty.
Otto Von Bismarck:
Massive physique and a prodigiousstrength
Also rather high strung,ill-tempered,and aggressive
Very intelligent. Had a sense of hisown weaknesses
Emerged asa delegate of the German confederation
Prussia’sambassador to St.Petersboroughand Paris
Knew the workingsof the InternationalSystem
Understood the limitationsof Prussianpowers
Politics,for him,wasthe art of thepossible.Dowhatyouarecapableofdoing,don’t over
He wasflexible in termsof the wayhewould viewthings
o Would keep an eye on longtermobjectivesand standings
o Would also look at the current issues
o Veryresilient plansthat allowfor contingency,and littleerror
International chessplayer:didn’t onlylook at opponentscurrent movebut at EVERYmove.
He called themthe in-ponderables
Much of hissuccesscame from patience.He hadaverygoodsenseoftime.
When faced with choices he would choosemost opportuneand least dangerousofoptions
Would never commit toanythingthatwasnotirretrievable
Not afraidto back out ofthings
Understood moderationand whereheshould drawtheline
Wouldn’t resortto lawunlessit washislast option
o Would fight war with clear and limited purpose.
o Stopwhen he achieved it,and stopwhen hewas seeingsign ofdefeat.
o Then he would focusallattentiononmaintaining peace
Loyal above all else to the Prussiastate
Ultimate aim:to establish a German Empire
Once he’sdone that he’llput allhiseffortsintomaintainingit
Very aware of the nationalistic sentimentsofthepublic.Nowpublicopinion isineffect. Wanted Prussia to take the lead ofthenationalist movement but thereweretwoobstacles
Bismarck realized that the only waytooversee Germanunification wasmost likelygoingto
result in war
Warsof German Unification
o Schleswig-Holstein and Lauenburg
o In 1850H and L were madepart oftheGerman Confederation
o S left out because they hadDanishpopulation
o Duke of SH isalso king of Denmark
o Triedto incorporate SHLintoDenmark
o German confederation didn’t likethis,sotroops weresent in to preventthis
o Bismarck cited internationallawreferringbackto 1863 treatiessaying kingof
Denmarkcant claim them.
o Austriansjumped in tooand sided withthePrussians
o January 1864 Austrian and German stateswent towar with Denmark.Daneswere
no match for the forces and peacewassigned inOctober
o King of Denmark signedover hisrightstoSHLand itwould be between Austrians
and Prussiansto decidewhowould get whatduchie
o B’sprinciple aim coming out ofthiswasto securePrussian dominance innorthern
o Wanted theAustrianstoabandonclaimstoSH
o Hope that they would dothispeacefully
o But realist said “nope, not goingtohappen”
o Initially they worked outan agreement tosplit.P getsS,A getsH and A.
o Austrianshad to allowPrussianspassagetoget to S
o Bthought he could push the A’s alittlemore andget exactlywhat he wanted.Tried
to purchase H fromA
o A dug in their heelswanted H
o Bpreparedfor war.Entered intoalliancewithItaly,told themif theysidedwith
Russia and they were victorioustheywould grantItaly Venetia.
o By getting Italy on hissidehecould forceAustriainto a2 front war.
o 1866:Prussia invaded H
In response A got German confederationtodeclarewar on P
Within the confed smaller statessided withA
Also thought that Austriawould win
WRONG. P isbetter trained,organized,and withintwoweeksthewarwas
In negotiating peaceBshowed restraint.Didn’twant thiswar to be
prolonged cause FranceofA could comein andweaken him Didn’t want to makethembitter becauseheknewhewould need to
reconcile with them
Wanted to use thistomake Prussiathedominant German state and annex A
from the confederation
o Peace of Nikolsburg,July 26,1866
Established North German confederation
Prussia acquiresSchleswigand Holstein
o Aim wasto get Prussian controlover ALLofGermany.In order todo thishe hadto
face France who would beveryworried aboutthis.
o Anything he wanted to dofor more unitingofGerman he had toface France and
take into account
o Wanted to get Europe comfortablewiththeideaof a unified germany
o June 1870 there wasa crisiswiththeHohenzollern candidacyfor theSpanish throne.
Soyou could essentially combine therulinghouseof Prussiawiththerulinghouseof
o Both Bismarck andNapoleon sawtheopportunity for their nationaladvancement
o French invaded Prussia,and itendedupbeingfaughtin France
o Humiliating defeat of France
o Sept 2 1870 Naopleon IIIwascaptured and thenwe get another Frenchrevolution
o Treaty of Frankfurt
France surrendered Alsace-Lorraine
Used the war to increasethesizeoftheNorthGerman Confederation
o Crowning of Kaiser WilhelmJan 1871
The existence of theGerman empire war declared in thehallof mirrorsin
These warsof unification,particularlyFranceand Prussian left a bittertaste
with other powers
People didn’t trustBismarck
European Nationalism is heightened
While Bismarck created an empire heleft alot ofresentment that he would
have to deal with.
After Crimean war we have no wayofmaintainingthepeace.SoBismarck,whohad
essentially achieved allhe wanted,needed asystemtohelpmaintainhisnewempire.
The whole country wasfacing theparadoxofpower.Allthestateswhowanted tounifysaw
Germany of predatory and expansionist. B was attuned to all of these feelings. He was very
concerned that all thesestateswould joinincoalitions.Therefore,itwasessentialto
maintain the peace.
Germany issmack in themiddle soheneeded tomaintainthepeace Very aware of the angerand resentment ofotherstatesand knewthat therewasnothing
he could do to appease France
Also knew he couldn’t start a preventativewar.Hewaswaryofthembecausethey’re
unpredictable,and a preventativewar withFrancewould notbealocalwar.
Bismarck couldn’trely on a balanceofpower.
He had to keepthe French isolated becauseitwasonlythroughalliancewithother powers
that France couldtake over.
Bismarck made himself the master/arbiter ofthepeaceofEurope
o One of the few world leaderswhowould pursue apolicyas a whole,rather thanone
o First challenge came fromRussia. Whowanted to interfereagainst theTurkish
Balkan war.R wasconcerened thatiftheyinterfered theA’swould use the
opportunity to attack Russia.
o Russia approached Prussiafor German support inthe hand thatA attacksRussia
Germany said theywould onlyact intheinterestofmaintainingthe great
If A would attack Russiaand their great power statuswasthreatened then
they would interfereagainstA.SamegoesforA.
Russiansresented Bismarck fornotcomingtotheiraid
Eventually Russia goestowar withTurkey
Bismarck isthe host, asthe arbiter ofEurope
He saysthat he will serve as an honestbroker.
Avoids favoring one side over theother
Concerned that if hedidthis,thiswould upset thebalanceofpower inEastern Europe.
ThisangersRussiansand thisturnstoanti-German propagandainRussia
Problem: France and Russia wereangry….Thiscould potentiallybebad.Theycould ally
themselves.Then Austria might join…uhoh.
Bismarckian Alliance System
Dual Alliance, 1879
o SecretTreaty betweenGermanyand Austria-Hungary
o Mutual Defense isattacked byRussia
o PURPOSE:To keep Austriaout ofanti-German coalition
o The detailsof the treatyweresecret but everyone knew they had it
o Hoped that the knowledgeofthisalliancewould reduce anti-German sentiment in
First Three Emperors League
o 1873– Germany,Russia, and Austria
o To preserve territorial,political,and domestic statusquo of Europe.
o Based on a presumed mutualinterestamongthepowersofpreservingthepeace.
o 1875 collapsed with a scareofwar between Franceand Germany
o Germany,Russia,and Austria o Reduce potential point of Friction
Ease tension in Balkans and Ottoman Empire
There wouldbe noterritorialchangestotheOttoman Empire without
Eased tension but itdidnotresolveissues
o Secret clause saying it expired after 3yearswithoption of renewal
Dual Alliance and 3 emperors league combined:Soincombination withtheSecret treaty to
Austria the 3 powerswere tied together
o Prevent Franco-Austrianalliance
o Prevent war Russia-Austrianwar
Triple Alliance, 1882
o France seized Tunis
o Italy not happy.Go to Germanytohelp….Bismarck saysthe he willhelp but he
wantssomething in return.
o Reconciles Italy and Austria
o KeepsItaly away from Russiaagainst Austria
o KeepsItaly away from France against Germany
o 1886- France wasgoing throughaheightened period of anti-germanism.Period of
o General GeorgesBoulanger,militarygeneralbeginsto advocatefor a anti-German
o Russia also isfeeling someresentment.FeelasifGermanyisaligning with Austria
o Bismarck isfaced with a 2front war.France andRussiavsGermany
o He’strying to gointo analliancewithRussia
o Had to convince them somehowthatRussiawould gain more by sidingwith
Germanyrather than France.
o Balso concerned aboutabandoningoralienating Austria,becauseof Russia-Austro
o Bismarck wanted to findawaytocreateaalliancewithout causingeitherto doubt
o Wanted to introduce ananti-Russiancoalitioncentered onAustria excluding
o Created a complex network oftreatiestoachievealltheseaims.
o First MediterraneanAgreement,1887
CommitsBritain tointerestinEastern Question
Britain isnowinterestedinmaintainingpeacebetween Austriaand Russia
o Triple Alliancerenewed,1887
Renewed for another 5years
Austrian and Italian Agreement onfuturesettlement of Easter Question Italy nowhasa stakein resolution ofEastern Question
NowGermany wasalliedwithB,I,and A and could sign an agreement with
o ReinsuranceTreaty,1887 (Russiasection)
Russia and Germany
Both sidesneutralifat war withthird party
Excludes:German attack onFrance
And Russianattack onAustria
Bismarck givesRussiaafree hand inBalkansandTurkey
Bismarck doesthisbecauseheknowsthathehasthepowersallied against
Russia, so Russia cant invadeOttoman Empire
He wants allthe other powerstoknowthatthereare arrangements in place
so that war willbe risky.Buthedoesn’t want togotoofar.
Reduced the chancesofaFranco-Russianwar directed at Germany
Thissystem of alliancesisdesigned tokeepRussiapeace in Europeand to
keep France isolated.
Thisismore of a balance ofpower,everyoneislined up against one-another
and there isn’t roomformorealliances
France not happy
Germanelements who werewilling torisk apreventativewar against Russia
Thissystem worked reallywellwhen Bismarck wasthereto maintain it…but
remove the man and thesystemisshaky!
13 October 2011
The New Imperialism
- Imperialism:extending the influence orauthorityofonenationbyterritorialacquisition,
establishment of economic, political, orculturalhegemonyover anothernation,another
state,or another people
o First definition ismore formal,traditional
- Empires have existed forover 400years
- 17 century,Spaniardswere motivatedbythedesiretoseizeland and populate/settleit
with their own people
o Same asBritish and FrenchinNorthAmerica
- Oldthmperialism would establish tradingcenterstoexploitresources
- 19 century,transformation in imperialism
o Industrializing statesare expanding
- Early 19 century British are dominatingthe worldstage,replacingSpanish
- Between 1870and 1914other great powersjoinin quest for empire
- Significant motivation is great powerrivalry
- With new imperialism powersaremore consciouslyimperial,actinginan imperialmanner - More direct political andadministrativecontrolover non-westernersbywesterners
- More ideologically motivated imperialism
- Verybrief period of timein which itoccurred andnumber ofstatesthatgot involved was
- Empires that emerged from thiswereveryshort lived,most lasted lessthan onehundred
- Hallmark of new imperialism was“scramblefor Africa”
o Twenty years,Europeanscarved upAfrica
o Occurred extremely quicklyand wasmadepossible bynew Europeantechnological
Great Power Rivalry
- Traditional motivations
o Idea of regional conquest and settlement
o Economic competition
- New dimensionsemerging in 19 century,giveit newideologicalspin
o Thismade new imperialismmuchmore systematicthan older version
- Tension on the continent – territorialexpansionas“zero-sum game”
o More territory made your nationstronger
o TerritorialboundariesinEuropein 1870-71,territorialboundariesinEurope became
more static with consolidationofGerman Empire
o Because of thisstatesin Europecouldn’t looktoacquireland in Europe,had tolook
elsewhere – global game
o Because land in world isfinite,youwanted togetasmuchland aspossibleas fast as
possible to prevent neighboursfromstrengthening
- New rivalry with Britain– strongestimperialpower
- Social Darwinian argument
o Possession of empire makesyour countrystrong
o Bringselement of prestige – mark ofgreat power status
o Large motivator for theFrench
- Japanese interested in empire to competewithwestern powersonmoreequalbasis
Impulses for Empire
- Social Darwinism
- Collapse of old Empires
o Ottoman – western powersmovingintoacquireland fromdismantled empire
o Qing dynasty weakeninginChina – JapaneseandEuropeanseager to take
Humiliating to China
o New marketsfor trade and investment
o Capitalist economies are becomingoverproduced,need new marketstoget outof
- Arguments against imperialism begintoemerge
Imperialism asfinalstageofcapitalism Capitalist stage of production istherefore comingto a close
Unrestrained competition incapitalist societyleadsto monopoly, small
group of wealthy industrialistsdominate domestic market,pressure gov’tto
acquire new colonies
- Domestic policies
o Between 1873and 1896therewasaworldwide depression
o Empires provide marketsand can therefore mitigatedepression
o Controlby producing tariffwallsaround Empire
o Germany,Bismarck undergoingunpopular social reforms
Decided to use acquisition ofnon-European German Empire todistract the
people at home
- Eventson the periphery
o Imperialpowersstart toshift power toindigenouselites – give them thesensethey
have a little more autonomy
o When they start to get thisautonomyit leadsto instability
o Expansion to preventrevolution and toprevent enemiesformacquiringterritory
o Empires are expandingbecausetheycan
o Technological and administrativeinnovationsin19 century givesEuropeans power
to dominate other states moreeffectively
o Quinine – anti-malariadrug,allowed colonist to gofurther into sub-Saharan Africa
o Railroad made it easiertomovegoodsand mobilizetroops
o Machine gunsand riflesused tosubduecolonialresisters
o Protestant and Catholic missionariesemphasizingtheimportance of thebible,
“spreading the gospel”
o Tied to thisisideological justification thatitisdutyof “civilized” westernersto
civilize the indigenouspeople
o Women seeking suffrage
o Colonialism,“taming the world”,enhanced senseofmasculinity
- Allidealswhich are driving statestogoout and acquireempires
- Coloniesbecome symbolsof nationalgreatnessand prestige –transcendclass
o Allare membersof the empire – unifyingculturalforce
o Socially constructed force
o Domestic factors influencingforeign policyand diplomacy
- Because of thisgovernments are nowforced tolisten more topublicopinion
- Thisbringsgreater willingnessfor peopletoget involved
- Whole idea of new imperialism wasFrenchcreation,originated withNapoleon III
- He wanted to try and regain grandeur offormerNapoleonicempire
- Knew he couldn’t acquire empire in Europe – duringCongressperiod,would haveled towar
- In 1850’she look to Algeria and Indochina - Eventually to North Africa,Sub-Saharan Africa,MiddleEast,Madagascar,partsofSouth
- Triesto reconcile olderNapoleonicvision witha newone
- WantsMediterranean to flowthrough“the heartoftheFrenchEmpire”
- Technological improvements particularlyusefulinIndochina
- ColoniesFrench were acquiring,regardlessofhowfar theywerefromParis,weretreated
administratively and conceptuallyasapart ofmainland France – considered Frenchsoil
- Bringing French religion,culture, and language,touncivilized peopleoftheworld
- Idea ofa civilizing mission then adopted byothernationsand used tojustifytheir imperial
- Mission civilisatrice relates to Frenchpolicyofassimilation
- New subjects had to abandon own cultureandreligion toadopt the Frenchones
- Idea ofbringing cultureand educationbackfires – when peoplestart toquestionideasof
equality and liberty thatare taughttothem,questionwhytheydon’t haveit
- British were chief rivalsof the Frenchintheimperialrealm
- British had massive Empire
- Their imperialism reallystartedtotakeoff inthe1860s
o From 1860to 1900 BritishEmpiremore thanquadrupled
- British Empire wasdecentralized,at timesthismadetheir empirehard tocontrolorcontain
- Also dualistic empire,at timesdivided intoself-governedAnglo-Saxoncolonies(Canada,
Australia) andexploitation colonies,governed more directlyfromLondon,ruleover subject
racesby imperialgovernment (India)
- Prior to thisit had beenruled informally –byBritishEast IndiaCompany
- Used indigenoustroops,Sepoys,tocontrolEmpire
- Rebellion waswithin Indian army
- British had introduced new type ofcartridgefor their weapons, believed theyhadbeen
lubricated with beef or pork fat – culturallyinsensitive
- Indiansdidn’t like way BEIC wastreatingindigenousrulers
- Indian soldiersunhappythey weresecondclasscitizensinthearmy – Britishsoldierspaid
- Following rebellion ruleof India wasturned overtotheBritishcrown
- British refused to give upIndia –“jeweloftheBritishempire”
o Didn’t want to be seen asweak inwake ofcolonialuprisings
- Increases military presence in Indiatosuppressother reforms
- Other reformsin India crated to mitigateauthoritarianpresenceofBritain
o Viceroy’scouncil,indigenouspeoplewhocounseled Britishviceroys
Divide in British Empire
- Divided among racial lines
- English speaking coloniesleft to their own devices
- Other coloniessubject to despotic rule
- Adopted French idea of“white man’sburden” – their dutyto“help” theIndianpeople American Empire
- Americansjoin in imperialproject alittlebitlaterthanother powers
- Their empire ismore informal empire –baseonindirect rule
- More hegemonic empire
- Americansget local leadersto rulethepeople
- American empire largelydriven byeconomics,ideatoestablishnewmarkets
o Want to establish new marketsfor manufacturedgoods,want toget resourcesand
people to exploit
- Because of informal style the countrywould endupbeingadependent ofthe US
o Their economic system tied toAmericabusinessinterests
o Local leader would make moneyoffthisand dowhathe could toprotectAmerican
- Americansalso used idea that theywerebringingbenefitsoftheir societytocolonists
o These benefitsneverreallytrickledown tomasses
- Can arguethat American Empire began withwestward expansion,takingland fromnatives
- Expanded later into South Americaand thePhilippines(actual colony)
Qing Dynasty th
- Had ruled China since early 17 century
- Attemptedto limit contact with thewestern world
- Allowed western merchants to accessChinathroughCanton/Guangzhou
- By 1876 became knownasthe Cantonsystemoftrade
- Merchants restricted to specific areain Canton,Thirteen Factories
- Cohong,6-12 Chinese firmsgiven monopolyon western trade,allowed Beijinggovernment
to tightly controltrade
- Traderssubject to Beijing criminallaw
o Includes arbitrary imprisonment and torture
- Suzerain-Vassal relationship
- Unequal system between ruler of Chinaand rulersofother states
- Based on assumption that China wasoldestand largest state intheworldand thatChina
wasthe source of all civilization
- Kowtow– three kneeling,prostrate yourselfninetimesinfront ofwhoyouarekowtowing
- Fit foreign diplomatsand representativesintohierarchicalstructurein whichtheforeigner
- Effective meansfor China in tyingChinaintoworld tradewhilekeepingtheQindynasty
separated from the west
- System worked very welluntil about 1820s,Chinesewayoflifewasrelativelyundisturbed
by western contact
- Britith really hated tribute system
- In 19 century British began to get veryinvolvedintradingopiumbetween Indiaand China
- British became dependent on revenuesfromlucrativeopiumtrade
- Beijing gov’t concernedabout effectsofopium tradeand addictions – tried toprohibit
smoking,selling,importing,production ofopium,but therewerewaysaround bansofthe
Chinese gov’t - Opium trade led to greater corruption asitwasan illegalnarcotic – tradersbecame tiedto
- Beijing gov’t cant control it, upsetstheCantonsystem,opiumtradenottied tocohong
- Begins to drain China of silver,goingto Britishto support trade
- In 1839Qing emperor triesto attack problem,issuesstatute makingproducers,and
distributorsof opium to the deathpenalty – includingBritishtraders
- Leadsto tension between Britishtradersand Chinesegovernment
- In midst of thisa few British sailorskillaChinesevillager – BritisharguethatChinesedonot
have authority to punish British citizens
o International issue,leadstofirst Opium War
o British beat Chinese,take opportunitytochangeint’l system
- Hong Kong,one of the best naturaldeepwater harborsin theworld – onlyterritorial
ambition British had
- Also wanted to get rid of Canton andTributesystem
o During war theybegan toattack strategically
- Qing’s worried hand of British would weaken their controlover allofChina
- To end the war quickly the Chinesemakesignificant concessionstotheBritish
Treaty of Nanjing,August 291942
- Abolish Cohong
- China cededHong Kongto Britain
- Agreed to indemnity tocover thecost ofthewarand ofallopiumconfiscated bythe
- Opened four new ports to Britishtrade
o Could have British representativesintheseports
o Subject to British law only
o Consular protection to all Britishresidents(traders,merchants,missionaries,goods
and property subject to Britishrule)
- Treaty of Nanjing,August 291842
- British Supplementary treaty,October 8,1843
- American Treaty,July 31844
- French Treaty,October24 1844
o Allgained same accesstoChinesemarket
o Called unequal treatiesbecauseChinawasbyfarconcedingthemost
- Rebellion against the Qing in 1815
- Due topoor living conditions,weak government,foreignencroachment
- Put Beijing government into disarrayand allowedforeignpowersfurther encroachment
Second Opium War - 1856-1860
- Opium not at allinvolved
- Fought over British claim that their flagwasdesecrated
- British way of getting as much aspossibleout oftheChinese,would takeanyexcusefor war
- French join in
- Resultsin extended treaty system
- Permanent foreign legation (consulates)inBeijing(subject toruleofhomenation,not
- Kowloon to Britain
- Propertyrightsfor French Catholicmissions
- Because of “most favoured nation” statutesintreaties,theseclauseswereextended to
- Russianslooking for imperialpower,moveintoManchuria
- Help negotiate end of Second opiate War,therefore abletogainRussiantradingprivileges
- Russiansalso gain Vladivostok,warmwater port fortrading
- Qing rebellion stillgoing on in western China,forcesthemtoopen uptowesttoexpand
military and take influence from stronger western militaries
o Get foreignersto train soldiers
o Use western shipsand guns
o Allof thismeanswesternersarenowpart offoreign order in China
- Western powersstart touse leveragetodevelopmoreopportunities
o Gain 11 more ports
o Can nowbe involved in internaltradein China
o Get Opium trade legalized
o Get Chinese to reducetariffsand open marketsto more western goods
o Merchant Europeansnowin chargeofcustomhouses
o Gained accessto interiorthroughmissionaries
o Backing allof thiswaspower oftheBritishnavy
o Trans-Siberianrailroadbuilttoconnect MoscowtoVladivostok
o Germany getsland
o France acquires territorynear their Indochinesepossessions
o British expandsimperialpresence inthecountry
o Americansconcerned theywillbe left outfromgreatpowerscarvingup China
One of the reasonstheyacquired Philippinesin 1898,stepping stone toChina
o Ushad problem they werehalfwayaroundthe world,stillweaker thansome
o American gov’t issues“Open DoorNotes” – askgreat powersto respectequaltrade
opportunity for allnationsintheir sphereofinfluence inChina
o Also ask for general Chinesetarifftoapplytoallnationsto givetheChinesesome
o No territorialgoalsfor US
Because of thistheywereabletopreservetheallusion of Chinese
sovereignty Let USin to back door inChina,gavethem economicfoothold,which was all
Paternalistic relationshipbetween USand China– notexploitative
- Chinese had been absolutely humiliated bythe western powers
20 October 2011
The Collapse of Bismarck’sOrder and WorldWarOne
o Datesback to the Russianwar
o The humiliation of theFrenchbyestablishingtheGermanempire inthe hallof
o Acquiring of Alsace-LorrainebyGermany.Frenchnowwant to reclaimthis
o Consisted of a bunch ofethnicgroups/nationalitiestheyalldidn’t get alongand
weren’t happy with beingpart oftheempire
o Austria and Hungary weresatisfied withtheempire
o Slovaks,Czechs,and Romanianswerenothappywiththe Hungariandomination
o Southern Slavswere most unsatisfied.Serbians,Croats,etc
o Serbswanted to join withBosniansand createaseparate state.
o Thiswasdangerousfor Austriabecausetheydidn’t want Serbstoset a
precedent for other nationstodothesame therefore causingtheempireto
o Slavsshared similar languageandreligion withtheRussiansso they had an
o Russiansencouraged Pan-Slavism(?)unitingofallsimilar Slavicnations.
o Lots of tensionswithintheempire
What are we going to do as the Ottoman Empire slowly collapses?
Austria-Hungary and Russia arecompetingfor territoryfromthecollapse of theempire.
Russia wanted to acquire more territory,resources,and materials
Austriansgettingconcerned about increased Russianinfluence on South-Eastern
Russianshad been supportingtheSlavsindefending themselvesfromthe Ottoman
Thisproduced theTurkish-Russianwar of1877
o Bismarck alienatesRussiabyactingasHonestBroker
o Bismarck creates Serbian,and Romanianstate
o Hoping to create abuffer for Russia,thisdoesn’t stopPan-Slavism
Imperial Competition The British were having difficultymaintainingcontroloftheir empires leaving them with
a number of colonialandnationalcrisestheyhad toresolve
Other great powersbegan toor wantedtobegintoestablish their own empiresthus
creating potential conflicts
Particular worry =France. Theyhadalotofimperialcompetition inSouth East Asia,and
Africa (France =Nigeria,Libya.)Particularlyin concern withthe Suez Canal
o French and British face off over thefortressofFashoda,and Frenchrealize
they’re weakerthan Britainthereforetheyturnback avertingwar.
Imperialtension and competition between thegreat powersin thispre-war period
The German Empire
New political entity,which emerged inthecentreofEurope.
With the consolidation of theGE.German powerincreased exponentially.Thus,making
neighboring nationsFrance,and Russiaverynervous.
o Population Growth
Germany -41 Millionin1870; 66Million+in1914
France Steady at 39Mil
German coal production800%increase
145 German coalproduction
33%German iron production
AsGermany isincreasing economicallyin termsofpower at areallyridiculous rater,this
German-Austrianblock createsmassivepower incentralEurope,whichcan disrupt the
balance of power in Central Europe.Therefore threatening the internationalsystemin
place since 1814.
He wanted to prevent France formaligningitselfwithanyother power
Wanted to keep them isolated sotheycould notfight awar ofrevengeagainst Germany
Uses international alliances to ensurethestabilityofhissystemex.Reinsurancetreaty
Hissystem would have worked ifitweren’tfor theunderlyingproblemsofEuropean powers
o He isolated France but didn’t dealwiththeir anger,fear,tensionsetc
o At the end of the day therewasnothingBismarck could do tolessen Russian fears
unlessthey renounce the DualAlliance,whichherefusedto do,thereforehe would
be dragged into anyAustrianconflicts
o Lastly,he isthe main procter ofthissystem…without him whatwill happen? What happensto Bismarck’sSystem?
Kaiser Wilhelm II succeedsKaiser Frederick whohadthroat cancer
o He wasimmature, had adisabled armtried tohideit to not be inadequate
o He tried to makeup forhispersonality withextravagance ex.Bird onhishead
o He wasa poor student, notveryeducated butexpressed interested inmilitary
o Had a very superficial knowledgeofforeignaffairsand divine government
o Incapable of following policy
o Wasthe anti-Bismarck theywerecompleteopposites
o Surrounded himself with peoplewhowould tellhimwhat he wanted to hear
o Caught up in industrialismand imperialsweep
o Wantsa bigGerman Empire hecan bethehead of
o Had oversimplified ideasofSocialDarwinismand Pan-Germanism
o Thought he could be spokespersonofGermanNationalism but didn’t goaboutit
correctly.Didn’t think ofhowit would looklikeoutside of Germany
o Wanted to assume the personaldirection oftheGermanGov…and removed
Leo Von Caprivi replacesBismarck,more compliant thanBismarck and obeysWillhelmwho
o Remove Britain as an ally and replaceit withRussia
o Wanted a New System of aTripleAlliance(Austria,Russia,and Germany)and then
tie it into an alliance with Britain
o SawBismarckssystem asreallycomplicated.Wanted a simpler system
o Did not renew the Reinsurancetreaty
Feared that ifthe top-secret aspect ofitgot it.Itwould subject Germanyto
Dropped Russia and started towooBritain
o Thisforced Russia into atreatywithFrance
Franco-Russian Alliance, 1893/1894
o Wilhelm wasnot very secretivesoRussiaknewof their planstoally with Britain
o R thought that B would joinwithGdue to
Lotsof commercialtiesand other ties
o R isa little concerned atend of1893thattherewasan Anglo-German alliance
o SoFrance and Russia entered intoan alliance
If France attacked byGermany,Russianswould cometo the aid of France
If Russia wasattacked byGermany,orbyAustria(Whois supported by
Germany) France wouldaid
If the triple allianceismobilized Russiaand France mobilize
Russia would NOT support France inawar ofrevengeagainst Germany
o Thiswasa treaty designed toremain inforce aslong asthe TripleAlliance existed.It
wasa secret treaty.
o The other powersknowOFthetreaty.Nodetailsthough.
o Thisalliance ended Francesdiplomaticisolation o In 1899the alliance was extended tolast beyondthe existenceofthe triple alliance.
No longer intendedto preservethepeacethiswasan alliancebetween Fand Rthat
could be used in any circumstance togivethemasay inInternational affairs
o Britain nowhad to consider France and Russia’sinterestsin any moves they wanted
Wilhelm’s British Policy
He constantly overplayed hishand
He ended up aggravating Britain becausetheyhad noideawhathewasdoing
Wilhelm failed to realize the implicationsofcancelingtheReinsurancetreaty.
German lost allof its leverage to allywithothernationsagainst France and Russia
By losing Russia it wasnowdependant onAustriaand Italy,and nowtiedtotheir interests.
Britaindidn’t findthisto appealingwanted agreater power intheresuchasRussia
Britaincould goback toplay a roleoftraditionalisolationbecausetheywerenotneeded to
balance the power of Russia sinceRussiawasallied withFrance.
Wilhelm could not get what he wanted becausehedidn’t realizetherepercussions ofthe
With an alliance of B/G he neverrealized theywould never want an alliancebecausethey
realized he would have way toomuchpower,and theywanted tokeepabalanceand
Kaiser wanted to manipulate tensionstomake BritainfeelasiftheyHADtoenter intoan
alliance with Germany.