IR 2701E Lecture Notes.docx

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Western University
International Relations
International Relations 2702E
Geoff Stewart

IR 2701E Lecture Notes 8 September 2011 The International System  International Relationschangeswithmodernization. Therefore youseecultureschange, technology,sociology,and economicchangesoccurs. International System  3 requirements o States must agree on aimsand objectives.Theymust beseekingto advanceand they must agree on adegree ofmaintenance. o Need an appropriate structureforparticipatingnumber of statesProduceastructure appropriate for thenumber ofstates,thegeography & torespect sovereigntyand to allowhe proper distribution ofpower between/within the states.Must allowa hierarchy to exist withinstates.Theremustbeastructure. o Procedures to achieve aimsand objectivessoweneed norms,policies,rules & th institutionsto help implementation.Theymustagree ontheirtogetherness. 19 Century great powers  Dominated by Great Britain,France,Austria-Hungry,Prussia/German Empire,and Russia  Honorable mentions:US,Japan, China,much ofAfricaand SouthEast Asia  Some of them began tochallengethecoreasweexperiencedchanges  States/Eliteshad very little respect towardscitizens.Thereforeyouseeachangein worldviewsand we become rooted inrealism. Realism  Assumes the natural state of the worldisand Anarchicsystem  Composed of sovereign states whoalwaysstrugglefor power  States act to maximize their share ofpower andsecurity.Soyouseeone state lookingfor more security,and that leadsthesurroundingstatestofeelinsecureand then youget conflict asa natural state of affairs.  i.e. perpetual conflict  Many believesthat thiswasthe waytheyhadtodoit.“Internationalsystemisat zerosum” Late 19 /20 Centurieswe see liberalismand Marxismbeginningtoaffect IR. Liberalism:  Assumes the system in Anarchic  But at the same timerejects conflict asanaturalorder.  Sayswe need cooperation to do stuff  If we work together peacefully we’lladvancedemocracy,respect for litigation/law.  Peaceful advance of interests o Democracy o International Law o International Organizations o Free Trade  They are idealists ex.WoodrowWilson. Whatcame ofthat? AdestroyedLeague of Nations. Thought that the time toredo wasafter WWI.Wanted todoawaywithbalanceofpower policies. Grouch Marxism and Marxism  The counter to Marxism isliberalism  The International System iscreatedbyWorldCapitalism  Emphasis lies in classdivision and exploitation,whichtrumptheroleofsovereignstates.  Classconflict drives world politics The Cold Wars  Multi-polarity reduced to bipolarity  Russia/USA.Then China became mixed intoitalltorivalRussialike theUS.Sonowyou have another force at work in the international system. Decolonization:The Bandung conference  Small countriesannouncing that their interestsshould betaken seriously.Theywere concerned about the potential of anuclear war.Theyshould haveasayin IRsincethey represent a lot of the population. The Scramble for Africa (Imperialisation)  Nobody wasable to maintain hisorher empiressoAfrostatesquestioned theInternational System.They had no say.Resentment ensuredbecausetheyhad toabidebyrules. Constructivism:  “Truthsthat could notbe refuted” ex.ISisanarchic  Either a competitive or acooperativesystem  IS isdriven by classconflict,organization  ArguesthatIR politicsis not shaped byunderlyingforcesrather our perceptionsofthem.  International system isa socialconstruct  Ideational  Post colonialism /Tricontinentalism o Political discourse or Worldview ofthepeopleofthe developing world. o Reconsideration of the historyofthecolonized from their perspective o Consideration of how thishistoryhas shaped thecontemporaryworldview ofthe formerly colonized people  Idea ofunderstanding and lookingattheworldfromtheother.  When cold war ended the focusemerged together at theforefront oftodaysissues. 15 September2011 International Relationsand the world ontheeveoftheFrenchrevolution Thirty yearswar:1618-1648  Fought by the HapsburgDyansty  Fought by the Anti-Hapsburg Coalition: o France o Dutch republic o Denmark o Sweden o Some German States  Emergedthroughthe Holy Roman Empire  Holy roman Empire: o Headed by an Emperor and verydivided.Hapsburgand anti-Hapsburg o Who wanted to expand o French were concernedbecausetheyweresurrounded bySpain,Germaniccountries and the Hasburgs.  Great war.Population wasdecreased.TheHapsburgdynasty wassplit and theascendance of the Spanish empire which at thetimewasverylarge. Peace of Westphalia  The end ofthe 30year war  Treaty of Munster o Catholic opponents  Treaty of Osanbruck o Protestant opponents Significance of Peace ofWestphalia in IR  1.Established a territorial baselineofEuropeuntil1789(Frenchrevolution) o Territorialsettlement:  East Sweden  West Spanish empire,Netherlandswereseparated  France waslead of anti-Hapsburgforcestheytook nothingfrom Spain.Only took from Austria &HolyRoman Empire tostrengthen their easternborders. They ended updefeatingSpain and thereforedefeating the Hapsburgs. Therefore, they weresetfor futureexpansion.  2.Validated the existence of the modern state toIR o Armed Forces o Bureaucracy o Raisond’état  Interestsfor transcendingcrown  French activelypursuedpoliciesthatreflectedthis  The state ismorethanjust an expression oftheruler’swishes.Theart of the government layinrecognizingwhatpeoplewant and actingin accordancewiththat.  A bureaucracyunderstandsRaison d’état.Marshallsthe resourcesof the state inorder toimplement what the peoplereallywant.  The territorialsplitsprevented onedynasty fromtakingover.  Rational interpretationbybureaucracy  3.Introduced a RationalTheory ofstatecraft o Kernel of modern state systemwasinplace  Freedom of state tochooseownreligion  Precedent for guaranteeingpeace  Precedent for congress  Procedures for maintainingpeace  4. Arguablyestablished the principleofsovereignty o The idea that all statesareequal.Yousee itintheHoly RomanEmpire.The Hapsburgslost power over German States.TheGerman princes weren’t beholden to a higher authority and could createtheir own religionsand own foreign diplomacy. Resulting in the state becomingthehighestrulingpower,and some tensionsat their separations. You can see the startingpoint of internationallaw.Seeagreements/regulationsthatapplytoall statesin regardsto fairnessand equality.Nobodycould beconsidered aboutthislaw; ifsomeone disobeyed it otherscould join a coalitiontopunishhimor her. Over the next century and a half you see anewsystemcomingintoeffect. 18 century-150 yearsofwar and you see5statesemergethat would cometodominate IRinthe 19 century French:LouisXIV  Idea of“le boioe” (sp?) believed thathehadabsolutecontrolofthestate,that God appointed him.Etc etc. Divine rightofKings.  Called himself “The SunKing”  Convinced France wasleading state ofEU.Hewasleadingruled.Hishousewasthedynasty. He was22  Dominated for half a century due tohispersonality and power over France.  France:resources:18millto 19millpeoplerichin agriculture.Pretty much hadtheabilityto be self-sufficient o With the helpof Jean-Baptiste Colbert theystrengthened the Frenchindustrial industry and dominatedthe economy o Increase army o Established a pattern ofwarfarethat would befollowed byEuropetillFrench revolution  Louishasdiplomats all over the world,andtried tobringotherrulersunder theFrenchrule  Sought to expand hisrule. Dutchwerealarmed at this.Hedoesn’t likethemanyways because theydon’t havea king  Attemptedto secureborders William of Orange  William wasappointed Stadtholder (chiefmagistrate)and captain-generaloftheDutch forcesin 1672 to resist the Frenchinvasion oftheNetherlands.  Headed Dutch state. Wasreally threatenedbyFrance  Recognized power and attempted toorganizeacoalitiontoresist the French and createa balance of power  Triedto prevent the dominance ofonepower  By 1688the Dutch werejoined byAustriansand someGerman states League of Augsburg  Organized by Louise XIVto provokewar withAustria o Brandenburg-Prussia  German States o Austria o Spain o Savoy o Sweden Mary  William married MaryIIdaughter ofJamesII.Williamwasinvited toinvade England because theydidn’t want Louise totakeover  He forced LouisXIV to make peacein 1678andthen concentrated onbuildingupa European alliance against France.In 1677hemarried hiscousin Mary,eldest daughter of James,Duke of York,the future JamesII.Themarriagewasintendedtorepair relations between England and The NetherlandsfollowingtheAnglo-Dutchwars.  Glorious revolution:William marchingon England and JamesIIretreats.England’spowers are restored.  LouisXIV refusesto recognize WilliamII asKing. Wants torestore JamesII Glorious Revolution/9yearswar  Significant in struggle for power/England’sindependence  1697: Peace guaranteeing protestantssuccession marked strengthof Britain whoenlarged their navy andfinancial system.Williamcreated a constitutionalmonarchyand was powerful becauseKingWilliam the3 wasKingaswellashead oftheDutch.  LouisXIV fought a very strategic war butcametoan agreement causehenowhadhiseye on another prize: The Spanish empire  1700CharthsII,the rulerof the Empirepassed awaywithnomaleheir  Louis14 triedto take itbecause hisfrist wife wasthesister ofCharles.Sherenouncesthe throne.  Emperor Leopold I triedto claim it toobecauseheisrelated totheHapsburgs  30yearsagoLeopold and Louise had agreedtosplit it  CharlesII modified hiswilland left ittoPhilipD’Anjou. o Accepts o Isthe younger grandsonofLouis o Had to renounce hisright totheFrenchthroneinordertoget it o If he refuses it the Leopold’ssonwould get it  Leopold isupset and invades SpanishItalytoseizelandsfor himself  King William doesn’t want their sontobe SpanishKing  Other countriesalso don’t like thefactthat Franceisappearingstronger and stronger. Grand Alliance of the Hague  Britain  Austria  Dutch  They fight Spanish succession.War. Treaties of Utrecht (1713) and Rastadt (1714)  France recognize Glorious Revolution  Renounce union of France and Spain  Spanish NetherlandswasreturnedtoAustria  North AmericanTerritory returned toBritain o Hudson’s Bay o Acadia (Nova Scotia) o Newfoundland o St.Kitt’s Swedish Empire (1700)  Doesn’t want Russian to use their water Peter the Great  Wantsadvancement  Goes toSweden,exploitsPoland’sand Denmark’sambitionsagainst Sweden GreatNorthern War  Diverts hisinterest fromRussia  Russia isable to form his country.Getsforeignexpertsin toadvisehim.  New Russian capital in St. Petersburg.DesignsitalongthelinesofLouiscastlein Versailles. Builds it along a river that Russia had toevacuate. Itsshowingthatthey’renotleaving. Battle of Poltova (1709)  DefeatsSwedish armies  Shows Russian reforms  Europe nowtakes Russia seriously  Territorialexpansion o Baltic provinces o Influence in Poland o Influence in North German states o Gain power to be active independently th German Statesca. 17 Century  Most ofPrussia’sstates are centered around Belgium  Ruled by Halenzolerbergs,difficultyindefendinglands  1640:Frederick William the great elector iselected. o He isa realist but wantsa centralist state. o Efficient bureaucracyto run thisstate and astrong armytodefendthe state. o Turned hisarmy into anefficient machine.Usesit to centralize the state. o A few people succeededhim:  Frederick III of BrandenburgakaFrederick IKingofPrussia  Frederick William I  1740:Frederick the II akaFrederick theGreat o In many waysisproductoftheEnlightened o Spoke to philosophersand intelligent men o Attacked Machiavelli’swritings o Wasa realist o Aware that Prussia was exposed and inadefenselessposition inthe centre of Europe CharlesVI:  Charlesthe 6 of Austriadies.  Haspragmatic succession to recognizeMariaTheresaaslegitimate ruler ofAustria  Frederick the Great signsit  Frederick ordershisarmiesto invade Silesiain order toshapePrussiaproperly.It’sa defensive move against Saxony.War ofsuccession.Justified itbyusingthereason of maintaining a balance ofpower withinEurope.  Acquisition of Silesia wasprofound for Prussia because it had a large population of Germans and resources.  Tipspower in Prussiasfavour  Frederick the greatsmotives mayhavebeen good War of Austrian Succession:1740-1748  France,Spain,Bavaria,Saxony alltook advantageofthesituation  In 1741 -1742 Hungarianshelped her win.Sheheld ontill1748untilpeacetalks. Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)  Confirmedterritorialstatusquo ofWestern Europe  Confirmed Prussian conquest of Silesia  Secured Austrian Succession  Prussia then became anally of Austriabutnobodyreallytrusted them Great Powersof the world at the mid-point ofthe18 century  Britain  France  Austria  Russia  Prussia In 1756Frederickthe 2 isfeeling rather isolatedand alone The 7-year war  He invadesSaxony and the seven year war ensues  Prussia,Britain,and Hanover  Austria,France,Russia, Saxony, Sweden,and Spain Convention ofWestminster:January 16,1756  2 diplomatsmeet and sign  AngloPrussia Convention o Guarantee possessions  SafeguardHanover o Agreementthat neitherside would attack theother 7-year war  British succession passed to Theresa’sgrandsonGeorgethe1 whoistheelector of Hanover st nd  King George the 1 waselector ofHanover.2 cousinofAnne  French were very isolated thereforeleadingthemto enter intoaBonaFide alliancewith Austria  Russia wasbetrayed.Said if theywenttowar England would beontheir side  What started asa little war in Saxonyexploded intoahugeone  On thecontinental theatre Frederickthe great earnshisname.Prussiaforceseveryone else’sarmiesinto stalemate. o Moveshisforcesaroundtokeephisopponentsdivided o Hisefforts were subsidized byBritain o Peace on continent made in 1763 North America Priorto the 7-yearswar  North America ismostly where colonial war was won  Britainused continentalwar to keepFrenchoccupiedin Europetobeunabletoput forcesin NA or India  British sent out 40000 soldiers  With their dominant naval powerstheyblockaded Frenchportsand cut ofcoloniesfromre- supplying Plainsof Abraham,1759  JamesWolfe defeatsLouisJosephMontcalm.ThisisamajorblowtotheFrenchinCanada  Robert Clive after Battleof Plessey,India,1756so Britaintakesover Treaty of Paris,1763  Britainacquired o Canada o Ohio River valley o Eastern half of the misssissppiValley  India o French Influence fatally weakened  NowBritain isa global empire /power and remainsuntiltheend ofthe 2 worldwar Europe after the 7 yearswar  Russian forcesdefeat Prussians  Seek alliance with St. PeterboroughtocontainRussia  Turnto Austria whoisHostile  Russia made no territorial conqueststheywerealeadingpower incoalitionagainstPrussia. Reptulian became amazing.Theybecomealargepower.Haveunfathomablehuman and territorialresources that haven’t been touchedbythewar.  Prussia isHostile towardsAustria,afraidthatthey’llcomeforSalasia  Prussia afraid that Russia will playAustriaand Prussiaagainst eachother  France ishostile towards Britain becausetheylost moreterritorythananyoneelse.Now their resources are far more limited.Spend 20yearsrebuildingwithEngland.Disappear asa major power. 22 September2011 The French Revolution and the CongressofVienna The French Revolution  Began in 1789and within 4 yearsby1793allofEuropewasat war withtherevolution and thiswasa conflict that lasted till 1815.  Extremely significant period in historyofEuropean diplomacyyousee aneed for coordination,a balanceof power (closer cooperationbetween great powers).  A result of thiscoordination isdiplomaticaction. Bringsaround theideawetalked about afterthe Treaty of Westphalia. o Rulesof Conduct o Discussion between states o Working balance of power/Equilibriumofpowers o Statesmen who realizedthat theycould controland shapeevents they didn’t just have to respond to events.Statesworkingtogether to controltheir ownpaths.  IR began to acquire a new ideologicaldimension yousee o Liberalism o Nationalism o Dynastic interestsemerge o Ideas beginto change and thisaffectsthewaystatesinteract withone another. o States aren’t only aligningtorestoreterritorialequilibrium,they’re tryingto fightfor their own ideasnow o This ideological dimension wasn’t apparent at the time  First Revolution o August 1789  Creation of Constitutionalmonarchy  Second Revolution o September 1791  Creation of the Frenchrepublic  The period of revolution reflected absolutist institutionsv  Impact of the French revolution o Liberal Revolution  The role of the state insociety  Values of a democratic society o Nationalist revolution  Sovereignty of thenation  Rightsand dutiesofcitizenship  Concernswerethat the idealsand valuesofothercountrieswould seepintotheir own countries.  Birth of Modern nationalism  What you see isrevolutionariesbeginningtoclaimideastobeuniversal o People are sovereign and theyallhavevariousrightsand duties  Seven Yearswar: o The French were defeated andthe Frenchmonarchywasinalot of debtand unable to put itsfinanceson a sound basis. o The French were supportingtherevolutionariesin theAmericanrevolutionssothey were getting allthese ideas aboutfreedomand liberalismfrom the US and were beginning to doubt theirKing. o These ideas are filteringintoFrance. o King isabsolutist and doesn’t seemtodoanything abouttheFinancialcrisis o People begun to use thisopportunityagainst LouisXVI  They argued that thegovernment should protecttherightsoftheindividual  Amidst thisthe revolution beginsStormingoftheBastille14July1789 o Declaration of rightsof man and citizen that stated thateachman hadaright… o Drafted a constitution thatwasdesigned toprotect these rights,and establisha constitutional monarchy, o They kept Louise XVI inpower but madehimaccountableto the people ofFrance o Soallmayor power was distributed amongagovernment o The rest of Europe wasn’t toohappyabout this.Theyweren’tused totheideasthat France isnowadopting. o The Intellectualsof Europewereenthused bythis. o In German statesyou see alotofsupport o In England you see a lotofsupport too Autumn of 1791, August27 Declaration ofPilnitz o Emperor Leopold II ofAustria o King Frederick William IIofPrussia o Both begin to feel pressuretosaysomethingabout what’shappeningin France with Louise XVI  Sothey issue a declaration,Pilnitz.Theypromise tointervenein Franceto protect the Royal familyand preservethemonarchy.  They willonly do itifalltheother mayorpowersofEurope agree to it.  Britain doesn’t agree becausetheyhavea constitutionalmonarchy.  In Francethiswasperceived verydifferently.France felt that it was surrounded by nationswhowereseekingtoundotherevolution o April1792 the French declarewar onAustria.They feel asif bywar they’re preserving therevolution against the other Nations.  NowthisbringstherevolutionariesinFrance topower.Sopopular loyalty isn’t directed atthe kinganymore.It isnowdirected at theNations. o The Secondrevolution isthen emboldenedbythedefeat of Austria/Prussia who invaded France. France then conquered Frankfurtand the Rhine lands.  Thisisthen when revolution becomesathreat toother powers,becausethe French revolution isnowreshapinggeographicborders.  France announcedthat theywould helpanyonewhowantsto overthrow aristocracy. o French invade Holland and GB o What you see isthat the Frenchrevolution is nowspillingout over theBordersof France and French idealsarebeingimposed onother countries. Thisleadsto the creation of the First coalition.  Austria,Prussia,GB,Sardinia,and Holland against France.  For the French itsnot longer about protectingtheir land itsaboutprotectingtheir ideals.  The coalition wantsto overthrown Franceandre-institutes aMonarch.  The French thenexecuteLouise the16 ,and begintoorganizeamasswar.  Everyone essentially getsinvolved inthewar,all economicproduction isforthewar,and peoplewillparticipate in the war.ThewholeFrenchnationbecomesmobilized todefend their new way of life.  The people are called Sans-Culottes  Ideology and Nationality are all wrapped intoone.  The Great terror isinstigated and peoplestart toget arrested for notbeingrevolutionary enough  Support begins to wanebecause peoplearen’t sureifthey’refightingfor their freedom anymore Spread of the Revolution and French conquest(1789-1794)  Political developments vs.Economictroubles  Result of these frustrations/resentmentsin otherstatescreatesnationalismand therefore the nationsfighting against France don’t likethefact that they’reoccupied and youbeginto see Nationalism in other countriestoobut inopposition toFrance.  Period of instability to own government.Frenchwereconcerned thatsomeanti- revolutionary forces at home wouldwinmajorityinthelegislature. o Abolished hereditary privilege o Peasantswere allowed tobecomeproperty owners o New political system of governmentbased onequality.Allproperty ownersare equal.  French want to stay theway theyare.Preservetheidealsoftherevolution sotheyturn to Napoleon Bonaparte. o Brilliant military leader.Proveshimself inbattle. o Ability to absorb every piece ofinformation thatpassed before him. o He demanded nothing lessthanloyalty o He essentially stagesa coupeand becomestheleader ofFrance. o Essentially doesthisby sayinghewillpreservetherevolution. o Firmlybelieved that hiswildest dreamsofconquestand empirewould becomea reality. Thiswould be hisdownfall. o Used everything he could toget hisenemiestoside withhim. o Delegated very little authorityand established asecret police o Allthese idealsof revolution aregoingout theWindow. o Created Napoleonic Code:  Safeguarded allformsofproperty  Secure French societyagainstinternalchallenges  Suppressinganti-revolutionaries  The peasantswereconcerned theywould loseeverythingtheygained  No birthrights Europe 1802:  France had become a dominant power.  Napoleon dismantled the Holy Roman Empire  He created larger states out of thesmaller German states  In 1804 he made himselfEmperorofFrance.Napoleonthe1 . st o Good army at hisdisposal o Things are well within the country o BUT he wasjealous of Britainnavy o He wants allthat Britainhasfor himself o He attempts to fight the restofEuropetoconquer. o He exploitedthe secularidealofnationalismtoget the people ofFrance to fightfor him. o He saw the power in NationalismindefendingFrancesempire o Nowhe exploitsthisideal  Major Battlesand Treaties of theNapoleonicWars o Trafalgar,October 1805  EstablishesBritishnaval supremacy o Austerlitz,December 1805  Napoleon defeatsRussiaand Austria  Hapsburg territoriesdivided amongNapoleonsGermanicallies(Bavaria, Baden,Wurtemberg) o Jena,Oct 1806  Napoleon humiliatesPrussia o Friedland,June 1807  DefeatsRussia and Prussia  Treaty of Tilsit (July)  Prussia losesterritoryinwestern germany and Poland – New Kingdom ofWestphalis  Alliance withRussia o Wagram,July 1809  Austria loses territorytoFrance,Bavaria,GrandDuchyof Warsaw and Russia  He beganto govern Europe by placingfamilyeverywhere. o Brother Jerome –King of Westphalia o Brother Louis– king of Holland o Brother Joseph – King of Naples,later Spain o Son Eugene – King of Cisalpine Republic(easternedgeofAegean Sea)  He imposed the Napoleonic codeonmanystateswithinhisempire.Thisallowshimto spread hisrevolutionaryideas.  Thiswasn’t allgreat because he wascomposing an armyonnationsagainst the willofthe people.Aswe saw earlier they havetheabilitytoretaliate throughtheir ownNationalism French Empire, 1810:  Napoleon established a continentalalliance/system  He tried to convince allhisalliesto stopcooperatingwithBritainand stopsupplyingthem with trade  He thought thiswould cripple Britain  Due totheir vast Navy they still had accesstoforeignmarketsand theyweren’t crippled.  Thissystem did more harm to France and EuropethanBritainbecauseofthelack oftrade betweenthem  Thisincreasesresentment of Napoleon  Germanic states see thatthey havethesame idealsand areallin thesamesituationsso they begin to unite in their own nationalism  Prussia wasonly defeated not conquered and wasled byPrussianmilitaryleaderswhowere only there because of their birthright  Francesarmy wasled bypeople whohad meritnotbecausetheywereborn intoit  SoPrussia begun to reform their army o Did awaywith inhumane punishment o Sought to inspire patriot icybetweenthe soldiers o Opened up officer positionstocommoners  Napoleon’sEmpire 1812 Russian Campaign o Russia withdrawsfrom Continentalsystemand France declareswar. o 600 000 French come out tofight and theyactuallymake ittothegatesofMoscow, nowthey’re spread out, and heisforcedtowithdraw throughthewinterwhich proves bad for hisarmies o Comes back to raise another armyof350000 Sixth Coalition  Russia,Prussia,Britain, Sweden,Spain,Portugal  Napoleonsarmiesare inexperienced and thecoalitiondefeatshim,  He isforced into exile and The treatyofParis1814issigned  They didn’t want to create resentment withtheFrenchpeople  Instated a French Monarchy LouisXVIII and allowed it towork alongside theother monarchies.  In March of 1815 Napoleon escapesmarcheson Paris.Thearmieswhoaresent against him turn and fight with him.  He isdefeated bythe Alliesand exiledtotheIsland ofSt. Helenain theArctic. Congressof Vienna  Schonbrunn Palace  Lasted from Sept 1814to June 1815  Fancy Balls, organized hunts,dinners,and abitofdiplomacy  Aimsof Congress: o End Napoleonic wars o Reorganize Europe sothattheywould havetheresourcesto be strong enoughwhen combined to balance theinterestsanddesiresofothers.  Strong enoughnotbeoverrun  Ensure that Francewould notrestoretoHegemonyagain o Ensure a Lasting Peace o The congressactually one met once.Tosign thetreaty.Theyalldidsmallformalor informal gatheringsof various representatives. o Principle powers:Britain,Austria,Prussia,Russia, and France o Principle architects wereMetternichand Catlereagh o They wanted to create asystemthatwould confirm thereadinessand theabilityof the statesto resist any universaldomination byonepower o Thismeant creating a systemorequilibriumofforces o Something fluid that would accommodate ittochanginginternationalforces. o Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh o Wanted to make Britainthe arbiter ofEuropeanaffairs. o Britain wasan island anddidn’t face thatmuch o He waslessconcerned withinternaleventsbetween states o More concerned with affairsbetween countries o To the end of theday allhewanted wasapeaceful Europe o Goal wasto get a weakened France,and restraintheirpowers. o He didn’t want splendid isolationheonlywanted to be involved withEurope if Britain would be threatened orifthesituationcalled for it. Theywould have an aloof involvement o Prince KlemensVon Metternich o Fled hishomeland Poland duringtheFrenchrevolution o He wasnoble growing up sohesaw theeffectsof the Frenchrevolution o He said you shouldn’t leavepower inthehandsofmasses.People weren’tprepared or equipped to lead. o Became minister of AustrianForeign Affairsin1809 o Smart, spoke 5 languages,charismatic o Real-politic:All hisdecisionscamedown to whether or not they would maximize Austria’spower o Hesnot talking aboutAustriabecomingadominant power,butrather about getting them enoughpower so thatthey’reabletomanipulate events. o Europe, 1814: o Austria wasquite exposed. o If any of Prussia,Russia, and France get caughtinwar itismore thanlikelythatit’ll be fought on part of their own land.Sotheir safety isdependant onEurope’s stability o Competition amongst Germanicstates o Austria wascompromised ofmanystatesafraid thatthey’re going towant to separate. o Prussia came out very powerful andbothAustriaand Britianwanted tokeepPrussiain check. o Britianmade sure to dominate thesysteminorder tokeepPrussiain power. o Tsar Alexander I,Russia.Very veryautocratic.Made allhisdecisionsonhis own.Very religious wanted everyone else toadopt areligiousbase. o Prussia: o Karl August Con hardenberg  Realized that Prussiassurvivalwasdependant onEurope’sstabilityand placesthe needsofEuropeabovetheneedsofhiscountry. o Wilhelm con Humnoldt  Realized Prussia isexposed and wantedtoorganizethe Germanicstatesinto a defensive systemsothattheycan allcontributetothe‘greater good’ o France:Prince CharlesMaurice deTalleyrand o Political and diplomatic talents,but alsoan opportunist o Wasa great participant in maintainingthepeaceofEurope becausehewanted to maintain their power o Deliberationsat Vienna: o A lot of statesthat didn’tlikeFrance,Prussia,Russia,  Partition of France  Taking away authorities  Taking away military  Getting France to takeawayindemnity o Austria,Britain,and France  Didn’t want to imposetooharshapeaceontheFrench  Wanted to reincorporateFrance intoEuropethroughreconciliatory peace  Austria and Britainlooked at thecontinent and realized thatFrance wasa weaker powerbut noticed that Russiaisnowthe greatestthreat tothe stability of Europe.  They were concerned withmakingthebalanceofpowersableto weighout Russia’spowers  Thisworked to Francesbenefit.Said thatminorstateswerebeing ignored in the peace talks.  When the questionoftheterritorialarrangementofPrussia,Russia arose they were concerned and BritainandAustriabroughtFrance tothetable. o The treaty of Parisrestored Frenchborderstowhatthey had been in1792,and the second treaty returnedthemtowhattheywerein 1790and alot offineswere imposed on France. o The countriessurroundingFrance arereorganized to bemore powerful tocontain Francespower. o Prussia formed an assemblytomeet inFrankfurt; Austria would sit at thehead of the table. The idea of a German confederationcame forward.  Thisallowed for constant realignment withintheGerman confederationto maintain an equilibrium  Liberal ideas weren’t taken totheassembliesbecause other leaderspicked leadersnot bythe people. o TerritorialSettlement fromVienna:wantedtostabilize the countriesandmediate some of the fearsof the states.  Russia created theindependent kingdomofPoland.Whichwasreally a Russian protector becausetheRussianCzarsaton the throne of Poland too.  The map of Europeisbeingredrawnbut noneofthe people were consulted, The leadersjust threwdown borderswheretheywanted.  Britain and Russia werepowerful  Resources  Good economicstandings  France wasgeographicallyexposed sotheywanted peace o The system wanted abalance of power.In ordertolook at this systemofpower youhaveto ask yourself what ispower? o There isno parody between the countriesintermsofpower. o The powershad to worktowardssomeformofbalance o The statesof Viennadidn’t want tobalance thepowersper say o They wanted to be able to balance resources to the demandsof the international arena.Tried to create aflexiblesystemthatwould maintainthe politicalreality of the post-Napoleonic order.Eachstate hadtorecognize that theywereapart ofthis system. o What emerged wasa systembased onparticipation, 29 September 2011 War andrevolution:The concert of Europeand theCrimean war. Congressof Vienna  Re-alignment of territory,they hadtoredrawthemapof Europe  They wanted to preventwars  Interstate system isneeded to allowleaderstodiscussissuestoprevent thesepotential wars  Signing of the quadruple alliance:Nov20,1815. o Britain, Prussia,Russia, Austria o Regular meeting ofthe leaders o Setsa foundation of thecongresssystem o They discussed mattersofmutualinterestandconcern o Wanted to resolve difference onthetableratherthan thebattlefield o Leadersthought it wastheir prerogativetointervenein the internalaffairseven if it’s another state.They felt theywerein asuperiorposition. o Called the concert systembecausetheyweresupposed to be acting inconcert to maintain peace o Thissystem maintainedpeacebetween 1815and1854 o During thisperiod no greatpower went towar withanother great power o The powerswould not actuallyact inconcert.Soit’s misleading. o Congresssystem isalso misleadingbecausetheydidn’t meetregularly o There wasagreementbetween powersonhowmeetingsshould beconducted Trend:1815-1848  Britainand Russia weredominant powers o They didn’t really needtomaintainallianceswithother countriesinorder to maintain peace. o They had the luxuryto choosewhen theywanted to make alliances or bea part of one.  France,Prussia and Austria were dependant onalliances. o The problem with thisisthattheyweren’t alwaysableto attainthe alliancesthey wanted. o Prussia wasthe weakest and themost exposed  East of Prussia lay Russiawhowasamilitarypower head  Didn’t have a lot ofpower andcouldn’treallydomuch o French wererevisionist power  Very aware of badfeelingsthattheir neighborshad after the Napoleonic wars.  Didn’t want torisk beingostracized by other powers  Never satisfied withstatusquoafter Vienna  Constantly frustrated with the fact thattheycouldn’treallymake many alliances because theyweren’t trusted. o Austria had many internalweaknesses  Multi-ethnic empire  Era of nationalism sotheyhadtokeepnationalistictendencies in check  The 20yearsof Napoleonicwarfareprettymuchleft them bankrupt  Externally suffered muchlike France  Half of it wasin theGerman confederation  Quite vulnerable given itsgeography  Russia on one side,France ontheother,Prussiatothenorth.  Alwayswanted to maintainabalance/equilibriumof power inorderto stayin the safe zone of Prussia/Russia  Metternich dominated thesysteminorder tomakeit work forAustria. Wanted to make suretheymaintained power oftheGerman confederation  Metternich needed tocontroltheconcert,ensurethat equilibriumwas maintained.  Twochallenges: o Revolution o Eastern question The French Revolution Threat  People became enlightened,no longer believed in divine will  You see a middle classemerge,become stronger,protestexclusionfrompoliticalright  Start demanding more political rightsfor thelarger population  Product of anextension of educationtothelower classes  Idea thatthe government wasaccountabletothepeople  Previously there wasa belief thattheKing/Queen isdivine becauseGodput themthere  People begin to rebel against thisidea,and youget revolutions Liberalism  People start to look for constitutionalguarantees/lawstoprotect theirrights o Individual liberty o Equal rights o Constitutional guarantees o Protection of individualrights  Forces are beginningtochangebecauseelitesarestillinpower and they’re threatened  Nationalism emerges  People are advocating that they should beorganized based onculturalboundaries  Ethnic makeup of Hapsburg Empire:At least 15different cultures  Nationalism and Liberalism werethreatstothestatusquoafter thecongressofVienna  Thisaffects the relationship between thepowersand threatensthebalanceofpower  Agents of Conservatism: o Metternich  Student in Strasburg and witnessed effectsof French revolution first hand  Associated revolution withviolence and disorder  Believed in law and order,and internationalpeace  Thought that Europewould onlybe at peaceiflegitimate sovereignswere unchallenged o AlexanderI  Autocrat  Veryreligious,sawrevolution,and liberalismasan affronttohisbeliefs  Creates the Holy Alliance:  Russia,Austria,and Prussia – Conservativestates  Thisalliancebelieved thatthestatesshould bealigned based onthe “Sublime truthsoftheirreligions”  Promised mutualassistance ifreligion,peace,or justicewas threatened.  Britain didn’t want tojoin theholyalliance becausetheir leader didn’t think it wastheir businesstoget involved withtheinternalaffairsof other nations  France wasnotinvited o They wereboth afraid ofrevolution,and wereaware of theinevitability of change.  Recognized that theyhad toovercomesomeoftheshortcomingsof the weaknesses of their own government  Very conservative and wanted tomakesurethatwhen changedidoccur it wasthroughresponsibleleaderslikethem.Notthemasses.  Bad thingshappen.  Revolution wasunpredictableandcould bringaboutviolent change  They hoped to use theQuadrupleallianceas abodyof powersto interfere when forcesof changeemergedelsewhere  Sowith the Quad alliance,and theHolyalliance youdon’t reallyhavea concert anymore.  If revolutionaryforcesemergedtheywould affect theinterestsof one or another great power.Notallofthem. o Hapsburg monarchy wasdependant oncertainnoblestokeep their people incheck and to maintain their powers o Worried about lower classesand abilitytoexertpower over them  Concert isdesignedto keep Nationalforcesincheck,aswellasliberalistic forces (?) o Czar wanted to use the systemtointerferein theinternalaffairsof other nationsto deal with so called revolutionaryproblems o For Austria thiswasa particular concern o Metternich wantedto interfereanywherebut didn’t want to share that withanyone else o Wanted to negotiate amongthemselvesand agree to‘limited intervention’ 1841-France allowed into NetherlandstoformBelgium,theyhadlimitedinterventionand the French forceshad to withdraw from Netherlandssoon after. Threat: Eastern Question  Who would hold influence over Balkansand West/NorthAfrica  Thisterritoryused to belong to theOttoman Empire  Soyouget the decline ofthe OttomanEmpire o Austria had Balkans o Russia got Crimean coast o British were concernedwiththesechanges,wanted theOttoman Empireto stay intact andthat African colonieswereexposed o Didn’t want Russia to get more power.  Metternich wasconcerned that iftheOttoman Empirebrokeupitwould lead toanarchyor war.  Russiansthought o They were inthe best position totakeadvantageoftheOttoman weakness o Desire to protect thefellowOrthodox Christiansin theOttoman empire o They wanted to maintain theintegrityoftheottoman empireas a buffertokeep Russia safe  Ottoman empire wasweak enoughnottoattackRussia,but strongenough to prevent war longenoughfor Russiatomobilize  If Ottoman empirefelltoother more powerfulnationscould takeit up and be a threat to Russia  1832,Ottoman Empire starts to face athreat fromwithinand an opportunityfor powersto step in to take advantage of the ottomanweaknessopensup o Russia forcesOttoman Empire tomake Peace withEgyptand inexchangethey’ll have an alliance with the Russiagov  Promised to maintaintheintegrityoftheEmpire  Aslong asthey have adefensivealliance withTurkey  NowRussia isthe guarantor oftheOttoman Empire o Austriansarerather alarmed at this.TheRussianinfluence isexpanding.  Austrianswant to maintaintheintegrityofthe empire o Both of the Austriansand Russianssecretly agreethatif theOttoman Empire implodesthey willdivide upwhat’sleft amongthemselves. o After this,Austria stillisn’t completelysatisfied o SoAustria and British callcongressestodealwith futureproblemsin thenear east o With allthese great powersgettinginvolved theTurksactuallyget emboldened o Seek to punish Egypt for their march o Ottoman Empire isnowweak,and thegreat powersallagree toaconference. Russiaagreesto let alliance expirein 1941.  Sign a new treaty. Straits Convention 1841  Respect integrityofOttomanEmpire  Turkish Straitsfree ofWarshipinpeacetime Keys to Concert of Europe  Statecraft limitedto Statesmen o Businessand government werecompletelyseparate spheres.People who understood the InternationalSystem/Diplomacy  Relative Ideological Homogeneity o France and Britain were more liberal.  Consensus to maintain Vienna TerritorialSettlement o If you’re going to alter somethingeveryonehad to agree toit. o France wasthe only acceptation tothissincetheywanted toreacquiretheterritory they lost, but were veryunwillingtovoice this opinion publicly.  Allthese powershad different competinginterests  They were alwayswilling,at thistime,toresort toacongressasalast resort beforegoingto war. Revolutionsof 1848  Revolutionsaltered the leadershipofthepowersand put thealliancesystem at risk.  1845,there wasa depression acrossEurope. Financialrepercussions.We alsoget growthin citiesand massive unemployment.  Nownew ideasare circulating aboutthe relationbetween state and society o What kind of role should thestate havein society?  We see the question of class emerge. Social change.  Though there isn’t muchrevolution and actuallychangewestillsomeslightdifferences o Workersbeginto put forth demandsfor politicalrights. o Classantagonizing deepens.Ownershipofprivate property suddenlybecomesa question o Nationalism also becomesaveryimportant issue o We see the beginning ofthe ageofmasspolitics. Peoplebecomeinvolved inpolitics and aren’t afraid to voicetheir opinions o We see new ideasspread allover Europe o Metternich isforced to fleaAustria  Louise Napoleon Bonaparte,and in1852declared himselfemperorNapoleonIII  Even though the revolutionswerehappening,bordersdidnotchange  The great powersdid not take advantageofanycountrieswhofaced problems  The equilibrium of power remained  The most powerful statesRussia and Britainweremost powerful,and theydidn’treally  We have a new generation of Statesmen emergingwhoare nolonger willingtoadhereto the collaborative principles of theViennaprinciples The Crimean War 1854-1856 o Destroyed the concert/congresssystem o Undermined theconfidence of theEuropean statement thatrespectinginternational treatieswould preserve the peace. o Cause of the war: o Vienna system had changed and youhadnewstatesmen who had littlefaith in the system o Russian ambition wasto spread East soit wasseen asathreat o Turkswere not willing to resolve totreaty.Theywerealsoreallyweak. o Russia wasthe foremost champion oftheInternationalOrder o Most powerful becauseof itsmilitaryand itseconomy. o On one side France wantsto changeInternationalorder,and Russiawanted tomaintainit. o Napoleon thought the only way tochangewastoweaken Russia o Nowother statesare more concerned withRussia thanwithFrance o Britainconcerned aboutRussian expansionbothon land and inthewater(Naval supremacy) o Concerned that the Russianshadgained controloftheconcert of Europe,and was using it for their own best interest o Britainpublic opinion had been encouragedtoperceiveRussiaasathreat.Journalists and spokesmen created a climate for war. rd o Crisisthat led to war wassparked byNapoleon the3 o If one state wasthe protector ofHolyplacesit gavethemthe right to interferewith the Ottoman Empire o Turksconcede theserightsfromRussiatoFrance.Russiaareannoyed atthis. o British say that Russia wantstolower thestatusoftheEmpire tobethatof a Russian Protector o When war starts,Britainclaimsthatthisisadefensewar toprevent the destructionofthe Ottoman Empire o Privately Britain had a fewother ambitions  Reduce Russian territorialpossessions  Cordon of Buffer States  Weaken Russia irreparably  Thisisn’t somethingyou can negotiate.OBVIOUSLYRussia would say o Russia lost about half a millionpeople o British were led by ineptand aged commanders  One of the commanderskept callingtheRussianstheFrench o French have bettertroopleaders,and getbehind thewaralot more o Information revolution –morepeoplehaveaccesstohave isgoing on. o Scandal over how badlyBritishtroopswerefightingforcedthe resignation ofthe current Prime Minister. o Florence Nightingale becomesfamouspromotesmedicine Significance: o For 40yearsthe concertmaintainedthe peace,and then thewar revolutionized the international system. o Russia became a revisionist state o Determined to breaktherestrictionsimposed on it bytheTreatyof Paris o Russia withdrawsfrom European affairsfor about20years,asittriesto fix itself from inwards o Britainturnsinwards o France-resurgent o Gained the most power.SurpassesRussiaasthe most dominant power inEurope. Why did the congresssystem fail? o New leaderswho didn’tunderstand thesystem o Napoleon III wantedto break upVienna o British new leadersPalmerstonand Canningdidn’t knowwhat theyweredoing. Didn’t knowhow to maintainstatecraft 6 October 2011 The Age of Bismarck Europe after 1848  Revolutionsof 1848 brought aboutanewgenerationofStatesmen.Individualswhodidn’t really appreciateViennafor whatit was.  They were ambitious fortheir owncountries,andnolonger willingtoadhereto collaborative interests  New leaders o Napoleon III o Bismarck  They were able to exploit the internationalsystemfor their own advancements  Howdid the Crimean war changetheinternationalsystem? o Reduced the bi-polar hegemonyofRussiaand England o Disrupted the congresssystemrevertedbacktoRealpolitik o France basically becameadominant power onceagain o Napoleon III lookedto break uptocongresssystemso that he could regainthe territoriesthat were lostearlier on o Russia washumiliated,and theyhavetoretreatand rebuildbecausethey’re looking to be a revisionist power o Britain washumbled o Prussia-Austria were workingtosolidifytheir own territoriesandexpandintothe German confederation  More anarchic international system  Revisionist powers o Russia o France o Prussia New Domestic Forces  Public opinion:many stateshad free and compulsoryeducation.Napoleon forcedthemto adopt compulsory education programs.Morepeoplewereabletoread thereforethey’re able tobecome politically aware.Newspaper industryemerges.Newpressuresplaced on the government. Also away to shownational interest. o Ex.British PMresigned becausethearmiesbehaved ridiculouslyin war  Pressure Group o Military becomesan important pressuregroupbecausewesee revolutionsin military technology andwarfareisbecomingfarmorecomplicated thanit hasinthe pass. Military staff played amoreimportant role.The Militarybecomes professionalized,and occupation.Statesmen nowhaveto consult military and they have a say in what is happening.  Nationalism o Irredentism + Revisionism:bringingtogethercommon cultures,language,and views in a geographical logical location o Social Darwinism: Societyfunction thesame asorganisms.The ideaof Natural Selection.Survivalof the fittest.Nationsarein astate of permanent competition and only the strongest nationwillsurvive.Strong pushfor ethnicities andcultures that aredivided between statesshould beunited.  Problem: In an internationalsystemit’sdifficulttoreachaconsensusover the territorialstatusquo.  Ex.Austria:Croats,Germans,Slavic’s,Hungariansetc Frankfurt Parliament  Nationalism wasan emerging viewinGermany  Duringthe revolution of 1848 nationalismwas oneoftheprimecausesofthe revolution in Germany  Nationalists imbeddedwith ideasofliberalismwerehopingthattheycould unifythestates throughan elected national governmentcalled theFrankfurt parliament  Wanted to replace German confederationwithgovernment.  Problem: lackedthe power to enforce thelawsorenforcerules o Biggest German states:Prussiaand Austriadidn’t really like theParliament. Kaiser Frederick William allowed thistobecreatedtoappease the liberalists.  Soit failed because Austria and Prussiasaidno  Sothe other nationsrealized thatinorder tounitetheywouldneed thesupport ofPrussia and Austria The German Confederation  Negotiationsbegan at the congressofWestphalia  Austria wasone of the strongest ofpowersinit o BUT barely survivedthewar of1848 o Weren’tcompletely German soiftheypromotedGerman imagethen everyoneelse could promote their own.  Prussia didn’t have the resource intermsofterritorybutdidhaveafewgood thingsgoing for them o Population almost completely German o Did have accessto some considerable economicand strategicterritory examplethe Rhine land territorieswhichwasreallytheheartland of their industrial development o 1819-Prussia helped createtheCustomsUnion:allowingtrade etc etc soit had accessto good economic means o Good leadership whoproved rather hardcorein the useoftheir power and decision making o Very strong military with acentralized government proved strong o Bureaucracy: people whoworked withverylittlepay,outofasense of duty. Otto Von Bismarck:  Prussia PM  Massive physique and a prodigiousstrength  Also rather high strung,ill-tempered,and aggressive  Very intelligent. Had a sense of hisown weaknesses  Emerged asa delegate of the German confederation  Prussia’sambassador to St.Petersboroughand Paris  Knew the workingsof the InternationalSystem  Pragmatic realist  Understood the limitationsof Prussianpowers  Politics,for him,wasthe art of thepossible.Dowhatyouarecapableofdoing,don’t over reach  He wasflexible in termsof the wayhewould viewthings o Would keep an eye on longtermobjectivesand standings o Would also look at the current issues o Veryresilient plansthat allowfor contingency,and littleerror  International chessplayer:didn’t onlylook at opponentscurrent movebut at EVERYmove. He called themthe in-ponderables  Much of hissuccesscame from patience.He hadaverygoodsenseoftime.  When faced with choices he would choosemost opportuneand least dangerousofoptions  Would never commit toanythingthatwasnotirretrievable  Not afraidto back out ofthings  Understood moderationand whereheshould drawtheline  Wouldn’t resortto lawunlessit washislast option o Would fight war with clear and limited purpose. o Stopwhen he achieved it,and stopwhen hewas seeingsign ofdefeat. o Then he would focusallattentiononmaintaining peace  Loyal above all else to the Prussiastate  Ultimate aim:to establish a German Empire  Once he’sdone that he’llput allhiseffortsintomaintainingit  Very aware of the nationalistic sentimentsofthepublic.Nowpublicopinion isineffect.  Wanted Prussia to take the lead ofthenationalist movement but thereweretwoobstacles to this o France o Austria  Bismarck realized that the only waytooversee Germanunification wasmost likelygoingto result in war Warsof German Unification  Schleswig-Holstein,1864 o Threeduchies o Schleswig-Holstein and Lauenburg o In 1850H and L were madepart oftheGerman Confederation o S left out because they hadDanishpopulation o Duke of SH isalso king of Denmark o Triedto incorporate SHLintoDenmark o German confederation didn’t likethis,sotroops weresent in to preventthis o Bismarck cited internationallawreferringbackto 1863 treatiessaying kingof Denmarkcant claim them. o Austriansjumped in tooand sided withthePrussians o January 1864 Austrian and German stateswent towar with Denmark.Daneswere no match for the forces and peacewassigned inOctober o King of Denmark signedover hisrightstoSHLand itwould be between Austrians and Prussiansto decidewhowould get whatduchie o B’sprinciple aim coming out ofthiswasto securePrussian dominance innorthern Germany o Wanted theAustrianstoabandonclaimstoSH o Hope that they would dothispeacefully o But realist said “nope, not goingtohappen” o Initially they worked outan agreement tosplit.P getsS,A getsH and A. o Austrianshad to allowPrussianspassagetoget to S o Bthought he could push the A’s alittlemore andget exactlywhat he wanted.Tried to purchase H fromA o A dug in their heelswanted H o Bpreparedfor war.Entered intoalliancewithItaly,told themif theysidedwith Russia and they were victorioustheywould grantItaly Venetia. o By getting Italy on hissidehecould forceAustriainto a2 front war. o 1866:Prussia invaded H  In response A got German confederationtodeclarewar on P  Within the confed smaller statessided withA  Also thought that Austriawould win  WRONG. P isbetter trained,organized,and withintwoweeksthewarwas over.  In negotiating peaceBshowed restraint.Didn’twant thiswar to be prolonged cause FranceofA could comein andweaken him  Didn’t want to makethembitter becauseheknewhewould need to reconcile with them  Wanted to use thistomake Prussiathedominant German state and annex A from the confederation o Peace of Nikolsburg,July 26,1866  EnabledAustro-PrussianWar  Established North German confederation  Prussia acquiresSchleswigand Holstein  RewardedItaly withVenetia  Austro-Prussian War,1866 o Aim wasto get Prussian controlover ALLofGermany.In order todo thishe hadto face France who would beveryworried aboutthis. o Anything he wanted to dofor more unitingofGerman he had toface France and take into account o Wanted to get Europe comfortablewiththeideaof a unified germany  Franco-Prussia War,1870-71 o June 1870 there wasa crisiswiththeHohenzollern candidacyfor theSpanish throne. Soyou could essentially combine therulinghouseof Prussiawiththerulinghouseof the Spanish o Crisisescalated o Both Bismarck andNapoleon sawtheopportunity for their nationaladvancement o French invaded Prussia,and itendedupbeingfaughtin France o Humiliating defeat of France o Sept 2 1870 Naopleon IIIwascaptured and thenwe get another Frenchrevolution o Treaty of Frankfurt  France surrendered Alsace-Lorraine  Used the war to increasethesizeoftheNorthGerman Confederation o Crowning of Kaiser WilhelmJan 1871  The existence of theGerman empire war declared in thehallof mirrorsin Versailles  These warsof unification,particularlyFranceand Prussian left a bittertaste with other powers  People didn’t trustBismarck  European Nationalism is heightened  While Bismarck created an empire heleft alot ofresentment that he would have to deal with. German Empire  After Crimean war we have no wayofmaintainingthepeace.SoBismarck,whohad essentially achieved allhe wanted,needed asystemtohelpmaintainhisnewempire.  The whole country wasfacing theparadoxofpower.Allthestateswhowanted tounifysaw Germany of predatory and expansionist. B was attuned to all of these feelings. He was very concerned that all thesestateswould joinincoalitions.Therefore,itwasessentialto maintain the peace.  Germany issmack in themiddle soheneeded tomaintainthepeace  Very aware of the angerand resentment ofotherstatesand knewthat therewasnothing he could do to appease France  Also knew he couldn’t start a preventativewar.Hewaswaryofthembecausethey’re unpredictable,and a preventativewar withFrancewould notbealocalwar.  Bismarck couldn’trely on a balanceofpower.  He had to keepthe French isolated becauseitwasonlythroughalliancewithother powers that France couldtake over.  Bismarck made himself the master/arbiter ofthepeaceofEurope o One of the few world leaderswhowould pursue apolicyas a whole,rather thanone linear policy o First challenge came fromRussia. Whowanted to interfereagainst theTurkish Balkan war.R wasconcerened thatiftheyinterfered theA’swould use the opportunity to attack Russia. o Russia approached Prussiafor German support inthe hand thatA attacksRussia  Germany said theywould onlyact intheinterestofmaintainingthe great powers.  If A would attack Russiaand their great power statuswasthreatened then they would interfereagainstA.SamegoesforA.  Russiansresented Bismarck fornotcomingtotheiraid  Eventually Russia goestowar withTurkey Congressof Berlin,1878  Bismarck isthe host, asthe arbiter ofEurope  He saysthat he will serve as an honestbroker.  Avoids favoring one side over theother  Concerned that if hedidthis,thiswould upset thebalanceofpower inEastern Europe.  ThisangersRussiansand thisturnstoanti-German propagandainRussia  Problem: France and Russia wereangry….Thiscould potentiallybebad.Theycould ally themselves.Then Austria might join…uhoh. Bismarckian Alliance System  Dual Alliance, 1879 o SecretTreaty betweenGermanyand Austria-Hungary o Mutual Defense isattacked byRussia o PURPOSE:To keep Austriaout ofanti-German coalition o The detailsof the treatyweresecret but everyone knew they had it o Hoped that the knowledgeofthisalliancewould reduce anti-German sentiment in Russia  First Three Emperors League o 1873– Germany,Russia, and Austria o To preserve territorial,political,and domestic statusquo of Europe. o Based on a presumed mutualinterestamongthepowersofpreservingthepeace. o 1875 collapsed with a scareofwar between Franceand Germany  Three Emperor’sLeague1881-1887 o Germany,Russia,and Austria o Reduce potential point of Friction  Ease tension in Balkans and Ottoman Empire  There wouldbe noterritorialchangestotheOttoman Empire without agreement  Eased tension but itdidnotresolveissues o Secret clause saying it expired after 3yearswithoption of renewal  Dual Alliance and 3 emperors league combined:Soincombination withtheSecret treaty to Austria the 3 powerswere tied together o Prevent Franco-Austrianalliance o Prevent war Russia-Austrianwar  Triple Alliance, 1882 o France seized Tunis o Italy not happy.Go to Germanytohelp….Bismarck saysthe he willhelp but he wantssomething in return. o Italy,Austria,andGermany o Reconciles Italy and Austria o KeepsItaly away from Russiaagainst Austria o KeepsItaly away from France against Germany  ReinsuranceTreaty,1887 o 1886- France wasgoing throughaheightened period of anti-germanism.Period of Boulangerism o General GeorgesBoulanger,militarygeneralbeginsto advocatefor a anti-German war o Russia also isfeeling someresentment.FeelasifGermanyisaligning with Austria toomuch o Bismarck isfaced with a 2front war.France andRussiavsGermany o He’strying to gointo analliancewithRussia o Had to convince them somehowthatRussiawould gain more by sidingwith Germanyrather than France. o Balso concerned aboutabandoningoralienating Austria,becauseof Russia-Austro tensions o Bismarck wanted to findawaytocreateaalliancewithout causingeitherto doubt him o Wanted to introduce ananti-Russiancoalitioncentered onAustria excluding Germany o Created a complex network oftreatiestoachievealltheseaims. o First MediterraneanAgreement,1887  Britain, Italy,Austria.  CommitsBritain tointerestinEastern Question  Thisbrought Britainintohisalliancesystem  Britain isnowinterestedinmaintainingpeacebetween Austriaand Russia o Triple Alliancerenewed,1887  Renewed for another 5years  Secret addition  Austrian and Italian Agreement onfuturesettlement of Easter Question  Italy nowhasa stakein resolution ofEastern Question  NowGermany wasalliedwithB,I,and A and could sign an agreement with Russia o ReinsuranceTreaty,1887 (Russiasection)  Russia and Germany  Both sidesneutralifat war withthird party  Excludes:German attack onFrance  And Russianattack onAustria  Secret protocol  Bismarck givesRussiaafree hand inBalkansandTurkey  Bismarck doesthisbecauseheknowsthathehasthepowersallied against Russia, so Russia cant invadeOttoman Empire  He wants allthe other powerstoknowthatthereare arrangements in place so that war willbe risky.Buthedoesn’t want togotoofar.  Reduced the chancesofaFranco-Russianwar directed at Germany  Thissystem of alliancesisdesigned tokeepRussiapeace in Europeand to keep France isolated.  Thisismore of a balance ofpower,everyoneislined up against one-another and there isn’t roomformorealliances  Austria-not happywiththestatusquo  France not happy  Germanelements who werewilling torisk apreventativewar against Russia or France  Thissystem worked reallywellwhen Bismarck wasthereto maintain it…but remove the man and thesystemisshaky!  Second MediterraneanAgreement,1887 13 October 2011 The New Imperialism - Imperialism:extending the influence orauthorityofonenationbyterritorialacquisition, establishment of economic, political, orculturalhegemonyover anothernation,another state,or another people o First definition ismore formal,traditional - Empires have existed forover 400years - 17 century,Spaniardswere motivatedbythedesiretoseizeland and populate/settleit with their own people o Same asBritish and FrenchinNorthAmerica - Oldthmperialism would establish tradingcenterstoexploitresources - 19 century,transformation in imperialism o Industrializing statesare expanding - Early 19 century British are dominatingthe worldstage,replacingSpanish - Between 1870and 1914other great powersjoinin quest for empire - Significant motivation is great powerrivalry - With new imperialism powersaremore consciouslyimperial,actinginan imperialmanner - More direct political andadministrativecontrolover non-westernersbywesterners - More ideologically motivated imperialism - Verybrief period of timein which itoccurred andnumber ofstatesthatgot involved was new - Empires that emerged from thiswereveryshort lived,most lasted lessthan onehundred years - Hallmark of new imperialism was“scramblefor Africa” o Twenty years,Europeanscarved upAfrica o Occurred extremely quicklyand wasmadepossible bynew Europeantechnological advances Great Power Rivalry - Traditional motivations o Idea of regional conquest and settlement o Economic competition - New dimensionsemerging in 19 century,giveit newideologicalspin o Thismade new imperialismmuchmore systematicthan older version - Tension on the continent – territorialexpansionas“zero-sum game” o More territory made your nationstronger o TerritorialboundariesinEuropein 1870-71,territorialboundariesinEurope became more static with consolidationofGerman Empire o Because of thisstatesin Europecouldn’t looktoacquireland in Europe,had tolook elsewhere – global game o Because land in world isfinite,youwanted togetasmuchland aspossibleas fast as possible to prevent neighboursfromstrengthening - New rivalry with Britain– strongestimperialpower - Social Darwinian argument o Possession of empire makesyour countrystrong o Bringselement of prestige – mark ofgreat power status o Large motivator for theFrench - Japanese interested in empire to competewithwestern powersonmoreequalbasis Impulses for Empire - Power - Social Darwinism - Collapse of old Empires o Ottoman – western powersmovingintoacquireland fromdismantled empire o Qing dynasty weakeninginChina – JapaneseandEuropeanseager to take advantage  Humiliating to China - Economics o New marketsfor trade and investment o Capitalist economies are becomingoverproduced,need new marketstoget outof depressions - Arguments against imperialism begintoemerge o Marxism  Imperialism asfinalstageofcapitalism  Capitalist stage of production istherefore comingto a close  Unrestrained competition incapitalist societyleadsto monopoly, small group of wealthy industrialistsdominate domestic market,pressure gov’tto acquire new colonies - Domestic policies o Between 1873and 1896therewasaworldwide depression o Empires provide marketsand can therefore mitigatedepression o Controlby producing tariffwallsaround Empire o Germany,Bismarck undergoingunpopular social reforms  Decided to use acquisition ofnon-European German Empire todistract the people at home - Eventson the periphery o Imperialpowersstart toshift power toindigenouselites – give them thesensethey have a little more autonomy o When they start to get thisautonomyit leadsto instability o Expansion to preventrevolution and toprevent enemiesformacquiringterritory beside you - Technology o Empires are expandingbecausetheycan o Technological and administrativeinnovationsin19 century givesEuropeans power to dominate other states moreeffectively o Quinine – anti-malariadrug,allowed colonist to gofurther into sub-Saharan Africa o Railroad made it easiertomovegoodsand mobilizetroops o Machine gunsand riflesused tosubduecolonialresisters - Missionaries o Protestant and Catholic missionariesemphasizingtheimportance of thebible, “spreading the gospel” o Tied to thisisideological justification thatitisdutyof “civilized” westernersto civilize the indigenouspeople - Masculinity o Women seeking suffrage o Colonialism,“taming the world”,enhanced senseofmasculinity - Allidealswhich are driving statestogoout and acquireempires - Coloniesbecome symbolsof nationalgreatnessand prestige –transcendclass o Allare membersof the empire – unifyingculturalforce o Socially constructed force o Domestic factors influencingforeign policyand diplomacy - Because of thisgovernments are nowforced tolisten more topublicopinion - Thisbringsgreater willingnessfor peopletoget involved French Imperialism - Indochina - Whole idea of new imperialism wasFrenchcreation,originated withNapoleon III - He wanted to try and regain grandeur offormerNapoleonicempire - Knew he couldn’t acquire empire in Europe – duringCongressperiod,would haveled towar - In 1850’she look to Algeria and Indochina - Eventually to North Africa,Sub-Saharan Africa,MiddleEast,Madagascar,partsofSouth America - Triesto reconcile olderNapoleonicvision witha newone - WantsMediterranean to flowthrough“the heartoftheFrenchEmpire” - Technological improvements particularlyusefulinIndochina - ColoniesFrench were acquiring,regardlessofhowfar theywerefromParis,weretreated administratively and conceptuallyasapart ofmainland France – considered Frenchsoil Mission Civilisatrice - Bringing French religion,culture, and language,touncivilized peopleoftheworld - Idea ofa civilizing mission then adopted byothernationsand used tojustifytheir imperial policies - Mission civilisatrice relates to Frenchpolicyofassimilation - New subjects had to abandon own cultureandreligion toadopt the Frenchones - Idea ofbringing cultureand educationbackfires – when peoplestart toquestionideasof equality and liberty thatare taughttothem,questionwhytheydon’t haveit British Imperialism - British were chief rivalsof the Frenchintheimperialrealm - British had massive Empire - Their imperialism reallystartedtotakeoff inthe1860s o From 1860to 1900 BritishEmpiremore thanquadrupled - British Empire wasdecentralized,at timesthismadetheir empirehard tocontrolorcontain - Also dualistic empire,at timesdivided intoself-governedAnglo-Saxoncolonies(Canada, Australia) andexploitation colonies,governed more directlyfromLondon,ruleover subject racesby imperialgovernment (India) Sepoy Revolt - India,1857 - Prior to thisit had beenruled informally –byBritishEast IndiaCompany - Used indigenoustroops,Sepoys,tocontrolEmpire - Rebellion waswithin Indian army - British had introduced new type ofcartridgefor their weapons, believed theyhadbeen lubricated with beef or pork fat – culturallyinsensitive - Indiansdidn’t like way BEIC wastreatingindigenousrulers - Indian soldiersunhappythey weresecondclasscitizensinthearmy – Britishsoldierspaid much better - Following rebellion ruleof India wasturned overtotheBritishcrown - British refused to give upIndia –“jeweloftheBritishempire” o Didn’t want to be seen asweak inwake ofcolonialuprisings - Increases military presence in Indiatosuppressother reforms - Other reformsin India crated to mitigateauthoritarianpresenceofBritain o Viceroy’scouncil,indigenouspeoplewhocounseled Britishviceroys Divide in British Empire - Divided among racial lines - English speaking coloniesleft to their own devices - Other coloniessubject to despotic rule - Adopted French idea of“white man’sburden” – their dutyto“help” theIndianpeople American Empire - Americansjoin in imperialproject alittlebitlaterthanother powers - Their empire ismore informal empire –baseonindirect rule - More hegemonic empire - Americansget local leadersto rulethepeople - American empire largelydriven byeconomics,ideatoestablishnewmarkets o Want to establish new marketsfor manufacturedgoods,want toget resourcesand people to exploit - Because of informal style the countrywould endupbeingadependent ofthe US o Their economic system tied toAmericabusinessinterests o Local leader would make moneyoffthisand dowhathe could toprotectAmerican economic interests - Americansalso used idea that theywerebringingbenefitsoftheir societytocolonists o These benefitsneverreallytrickledown tomasses - Can arguethat American Empire began withwestward expansion,takingland fromnatives - Expanded later into South Americaand thePhilippines(actual colony) Qing Dynasty th - Had ruled China since early 17 century - Attemptedto limit contact with thewestern world - Allowed western merchants to accessChinathroughCanton/Guangzhou - By 1876 became knownasthe Cantonsystemoftrade - Merchants restricted to specific areain Canton,Thirteen Factories - Cohong,6-12 Chinese firmsgiven monopolyon western trade,allowed Beijinggovernment to tightly controltrade - Traderssubject to Beijing criminallaw o Includes arbitrary imprisonment and torture Tribute System - Suzerain-Vassal relationship - Unequal system between ruler of Chinaand rulersofother states - Based on assumption that China wasoldestand largest state intheworldand thatChina wasthe source of all civilization - Kowtow– three kneeling,prostrate yourselfninetimesinfront ofwhoyouarekowtowing to - Fit foreign diplomatsand representativesintohierarchicalstructurein whichtheforeigner wasalways inferior - Effective meansfor China in tyingChinaintoworld tradewhilekeepingtheQindynasty separated from the west - System worked very welluntil about 1820s,Chinesewayoflifewasrelativelyundisturbed by western contact - Britith really hated tribute system - In 19 century British began to get veryinvolvedintradingopiumbetween Indiaand China - British became dependent on revenuesfromlucrativeopiumtrade - Beijing gov’t concernedabout effectsofopium tradeand addictions – tried toprohibit smoking,selling,importing,production ofopium,but therewerewaysaround bansofthe Chinese gov’t - Opium trade led to greater corruption asitwasan illegalnarcotic – tradersbecame tiedto secret societies - Beijing gov’t cant control it, upsetstheCantonsystem,opiumtradenottied tocohong - Begins to drain China of silver,goingto Britishto support trade - In 1839Qing emperor triesto attack problem,issuesstatute makingproducers,and distributorsof opium to the deathpenalty – includingBritishtraders - Leadsto tension between Britishtradersand Chinesegovernment - In midst of thisa few British sailorskillaChinesevillager – BritisharguethatChinesedonot have authority to punish British citizens o International issue,leadstofirst Opium War o British beat Chinese,take opportunitytochangeint’l system - Hong Kong,one of the best naturaldeepwater harborsin theworld – onlyterritorial ambition British had - Also wanted to get rid of Canton andTributesystem o During war theybegan toattack strategically - Qing’s worried hand of British would weaken their controlover allofChina - To end the war quickly the Chinesemakesignificant concessionstotheBritish Treaty of Nanjing,August 291942 - Abolish Cohong - China cededHong Kongto Britain - Agreed to indemnity tocover thecost ofthewarand ofallopiumconfiscated bythe Emperor’smeasures - Opened four new ports to Britishtrade o Amoy o Fuzhou o Ningbo o Shanghai o Could have British representativesintheseports o Subject to British law only - Extraterritoriality o Consular protection to all Britishresidents(traders,merchants,missionaries,goods and property subject to Britishrule) Unequal Treaties - Treaty of Nanjing,August 291842 - British Supplementary treaty,October 8,1843 - American Treaty,July 31844 - French Treaty,October24 1844 o Allgained same accesstoChinesemarket o Called unequal treatiesbecauseChinawasbyfarconcedingthemost Taiping Rebellion - Rebellion against the Qing in 1815 - Due topoor living conditions,weak government,foreignencroachment - Put Beijing government into disarrayand allowedforeignpowersfurther encroachment into China Second Opium War - 1856-1860 - Opium not at allinvolved - Fought over British claim that their flagwasdesecrated - British way of getting as much aspossibleout oftheChinese,would takeanyexcusefor war - French join in - Resultsin extended treaty system - Permanent foreign legation (consulates)inBeijing(subject toruleofhomenation,not Chinese) - Indemnities - Kowloon to Britain - Propertyrightsfor French Catholicmissions - Because of “most favoured nation” statutesintreaties,theseclauseswereextended to other powers - Russianslooking for imperialpower,moveintoManchuria - Help negotiate end of Second opiate War,therefore abletogainRussiantradingprivileges - Russiansalso gain Vladivostok,warmwater port fortrading - Qing rebellion stillgoing on in western China,forcesthemtoopen uptowesttoexpand military and take influence from stronger western militaries o Get foreignersto train soldiers o Use western shipsand guns o Allof thismeanswesternersarenowpart offoreign order in China - Western powersstart touse leveragetodevelopmoreopportunities o Gain 11 more ports o Can nowbe involved in internaltradein China o Get Opium trade legalized o Get Chinese to reducetariffsand open marketsto more western goods o Merchant Europeansnowin chargeofcustomhouses o Gained accessto interiorthroughmissionaries o Backing allof thiswaspower oftheBritishnavy o Trans-Siberianrailroadbuilttoconnect MoscowtoVladivostok o Germany getsland o France acquires territorynear their Indochinesepossessions o British expandsimperialpresence inthecountry o Americansconcerned theywillbe left outfromgreatpowerscarvingup China  One of the reasonstheyacquired Philippinesin 1898,stepping stone toChina o Ushad problem they werehalfwayaroundthe world,stillweaker thansome European powers o American gov’t issues“Open DoorNotes” – askgreat powersto respectequaltrade opportunity for allnationsintheir sphereofinfluence inChina o Also ask for general Chinesetarifftoapplytoallnationsto givetheChinesesome autonomy o No territorialgoalsfor US  Because of thistheywereabletopreservetheallusion of Chinese sovereignty  Let USin to back door inChina,gavethem economicfoothold,which was all they wanted  Paternalistic relationshipbetween USand China– notexploitative - Chinese had been absolutely humiliated bythe western powers - 20 October 2011 The Collapse of Bismarck’sOrder and WorldWarOne International Tensions Irreconcilable Hatreds  France andGermany o Datesback to the Russianwar o The humiliation of theFrenchbyestablishingtheGermanempire inthe hallof mirrors. o Acquiring of Alsace-LorrainebyGermany.Frenchnowwant to reclaimthis territory.  Multinational HapsburgEmpire o Consisted of a bunch ofethnicgroups/nationalitiestheyalldidn’t get alongand weren’t happy with beingpart oftheempire o Austria and Hungary weresatisfied withtheempire o Slovaks,Czechs,and Romanianswerenothappywiththe Hungariandomination o Southern Slavswere most unsatisfied.Serbians,Croats,etc o Serbswanted to join withBosniansand createaseparate state. o Thiswasdangerousfor Austriabecausetheydidn’t want Serbstoset a precedent for other nationstodothesame therefore causingtheempireto collapse o Slavsshared similar languageandreligion withtheRussiansso they had an affinity o Russiansencouraged Pan-Slavism(?)unitingofallsimilar Slavicnations. o Lots of tensionswithintheempire The EasternQuestion  What are we going to do as the Ottoman Empire slowly collapses?  Austria-Hungary and Russia arecompetingfor territoryfromthecollapse of theempire.  Russia wanted to acquire more territory,resources,and materials  Austriansgettingconcerned about increased Russianinfluence on South-Eastern borders  Russianshad been supportingtheSlavsindefending themselvesfromthe Ottoman Empire  Thisproduced theTurkish-Russianwar of1877  Congressof Berlin,1878 o Bismarck alienatesRussiabyactingasHonestBroker o Bismarck creates Serbian,and Romanianstate o Hoping to create abuffer for Russia,thisdoesn’t stopPan-Slavism Imperial Competition  The British were having difficultymaintainingcontroloftheir empires leaving them with a number of colonialandnationalcrisestheyhad toresolve  Other great powersbegan toor wantedtobegintoestablish their own empiresthus creating potential conflicts  Particular worry =France. Theyhadalotofimperialcompetition inSouth East Asia,and Africa (France =Nigeria,Libya.)Particularlyin concern withthe Suez Canal  Fashoda Crisis,1898: o French and British face off over thefortressofFashoda,and Frenchrealize they’re weakerthan Britainthereforetheyturnback avertingwar.  Imperialtension and competition between thegreat powersin thispre-war period The German Empire  New political entity,which emerged inthecentreofEurope.  With the consolidation of theGE.German powerincreased exponentially.Thus,making neighboring nationsFrance,and Russiaverynervous.  German Might o Population Growth  Germany -41 Millionin1870; 66Million+in1914  France Steady at 39Mil o IndustrialGrowth  German coal production800%increase  Germany producing2/3ofEurope’ssteel  French lagging(1910)  145 German coalproduction  33%German iron production  25%German steelproduction  Russia lagging  13%German coalproduction  23%German pigironproduction  16%German steelproduction  AsGermany isincreasing economicallyin termsofpower at areallyridiculous rater,this German-Austrianblock createsmassivepower incentralEurope,whichcan disrupt the balance of power in Central Europe.Therefore threatening the internationalsystemin place since 1814. Bismarck’sAlliance System  He wanted to prevent France formaligningitselfwithanyother power  Wanted to keep them isolated sotheycould notfight awar ofrevengeagainst Germany  Uses international alliances to ensurethestabilityofhissystemex.Reinsurancetreaty  Hissystem would have worked ifitweren’tfor theunderlyingproblemsofEuropean powers o He isolated France but didn’t dealwiththeir anger,fear,tensionsetc o At the end of the day therewasnothingBismarck could do tolessen Russian fears unlessthey renounce the DualAlliance,whichherefusedto do,thereforehe would be dragged into anyAustrianconflicts o Lastly,he isthe main procter ofthissystem…without him whatwill happen? What happensto Bismarck’sSystem?  Kaiser Wilhelm II succeedsKaiser Frederick whohadthroat cancer o He wasimmature, had adisabled armtried tohideit to not be inadequate o He tried to makeup forhispersonality withextravagance ex.Bird onhishead o He wasa poor student, notveryeducated butexpressed interested inmilitary o Had a very superficial knowledgeofforeignaffairsand divine government o Incapable of following policy o Wasthe anti-Bismarck theywerecompleteopposites o Surrounded himself with peoplewhowould tellhimwhat he wanted to hear o Caught up in industrialismand imperialsweep o Wantsa bigGerman Empire hecan bethehead of o Had oversimplified ideasofSocialDarwinismand Pan-Germanism o Thought he could be spokespersonofGermanNationalism but didn’t goaboutit correctly.Didn’t think ofhowit would looklikeoutside of Germany o Wanted to assume the personaldirection oftheGermanGov…and removed Bismarck  Leo Von Caprivi replacesBismarck,more compliant thanBismarck and obeysWillhelmwho wantsto: o Remove Britain as an ally and replaceit withRussia o Wanted a New System of aTripleAlliance(Austria,Russia,and Germany)and then tie it into an alliance with Britain o SawBismarckssystem asreallycomplicated.Wanted a simpler system o Did not renew the Reinsurancetreaty  Feared that ifthe top-secret aspect ofitgot it.Itwould subject Germanyto blackmailfrom Russia  Dropped Russia and started towooBritain o Thisforced Russia into atreatywithFrance  Franco-Russian Alliance, 1893/1894 o Wilhelm wasnot very secretivesoRussiaknewof their planstoally with Britain o R thought that B would joinwithGdue to  Lotsof commercialtiesand other ties o R isa little concerned atend of1893thattherewasan Anglo-German alliance o SoFrance and Russia entered intoan alliance o Terms:  If France attacked byGermany,Russianswould cometo the aid of France  If Russia wasattacked byGermany,orbyAustria(Whois supported by Germany) France wouldaid  If the triple allianceismobilized Russiaand France mobilize  Russia would NOT support France inawar ofrevengeagainst Germany o Thiswasa treaty designed toremain inforce aslong asthe TripleAlliance existed.It wasa secret treaty. o The other powersknowOFthetreaty.Nodetailsthough. o Thisalliance ended Francesdiplomaticisolation o In 1899the alliance was extended tolast beyondthe existenceofthe triple alliance. No longer intendedto preservethepeacethiswasan alliancebetween Fand Rthat could be used in any circumstance togivethemasay inInternational affairs o Britain nowhad to consider France and Russia’sinterestsin any moves they wanted to make Wilhelm’s British Policy  He constantly overplayed hishand  He ended up aggravating Britain becausetheyhad noideawhathewasdoing  Wilhelm failed to realize the implicationsofcancelingtheReinsurancetreaty.  German lost allof its leverage to allywithothernationsagainst France and Russia  By losing Russia it wasnowdependant onAustriaand Italy,and nowtiedtotheir interests.  Britaindidn’t findthisto appealingwanted agreater power intheresuchasRussia  Britaincould goback toplay a roleoftraditionalisolationbecausetheywerenotneeded to balance the power of Russia sinceRussiawasallied withFrance.  Wilhelm could not get what he wanted becausehedidn’t realizetherepercussions ofthe Reinsurance treaty  With an alliance of B/G he neverrealized theywould never want an alliancebecausethey realized he would have way toomuchpower,and theywanted tokeepabalanceand maintain peace.  Kaiser wanted to manipulate tensionstomake BritainfeelasiftheyHADtoenter intoan alliance with Germany. Germany’sWeltpolitik 
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