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KINESIOLOGY lecture 2.docx

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Western University
Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose

Professional Practice Knowledge - Holistic and experimental - (guided trial and error learning reflecting the complex interplay of many factors - It is often innovative and immediately applicable but less reliable and susceptible to bias - Biggest difference is the central and active role of the researcher in the process of knowing (within the research rather than a neutral, outside observer) - Pre-eminence of TACIT KNOWLEDGE – a process of inference and intuition that integrated clues into meaning - Subsidiary Awareness of certain clues – “we know more than we can tell”, “it seems logical” - Use unique experience and knowledge to develop strategies. Examples: case studies (n of 1) Clinical reports In- Depth interviews Introspective reports Participant Observation Shared experiences You must actively integrate scientific knowledge with professional experience and temper these with your own insights and intuition. Motivation - From the latin – “Movere” = to move - theatrical contruct (not a directly observable phenomenon) - Is used to account for the: selection, Intensity, Persistence, of behavior, learning or performance in any activity Any use of positive social reinforcement should: a) be meaningful or important b) be contingent on some performance criteria not just on outcome c) be administered immediately and consistently among all participants d) be given for demonstrating good effort toward the target behavior or performance of a skill e) allow for mistakes in overall performance f) reward appropriate social and emotional responses g) be used to maintain skills already developed by continuing to reinforce correct performance – don’t just focus on incorrect performance or negative behavior Distribution of reinforcement and punishment for effective coaching and teaching (Kauss, 1980) Procedures for developing and maintaining specific performances or behavior 1. Shaping: Reinforcement of successively closer approximations of the terminal (final) performance or behavior How to shape: a) determine present ability b) identify steps or stages of the skill to be learned c) identify appropriate reinforcers d) clarify the terminal level of skill, performance, or behavior e) start with the most important stages that can be accomplished successfully and provide appropriate +ve reinforcement f) selectively reinforce behavior or skill execution that is increasingly similar to the terminal skill/behavior g) then begin to fill in the missing parts of the identified skill – not a sequential process 2. Chaining: successive reinforcement of component parts or segments of a skill or behavior How to chain behaviours or skills  Break skill down into linked segments  Teach and reinforce each segment in turn  Work on one segment until it is at or near the terminal level of execution  can work from the beginning or the end of the skill 3. Reinforcement Schedules (whole-part-whole method) The frequency of reinforcement schedules a) Constant schedule Reinforce every occurrence of the desired behavior/skill, Use in initial training b) Intermittent schedules 1. Ratio –given after a set number of correct responses eg. Every third repition 2. Interval – given after a specific amount of time has elapsed eg. Every two minutes 3. Duration – given during a set period of time, eg. Only given during certain portions 1. Intrinsic Motivation How to measure intrinsic motivation a) Free choice involvement in an activity – time spent b) Presence of performance quality – complexity, creativity, flexibility, spontaneity c) Self-repot questionnaires-interest, enjoyment, satisfaction 2. Extrinsic motivation - behavior engaged in for reasons other than the activity itself – external rewards - activity becomes a means to an end – a way to an external reward or comply with the demands of others - produces a feeling of external control resulting in compliance or defiance and is manifested by feelings of pressure, tension or apprehension (see pg.140) (can compete or cooperate with one another) How external rewards influence intrinsic interest have been analyzed in two ways: 1. Empirical approach – research based a) lepper and green (1975) – Nursery study - felt tipped pens for drawing - 3 groups of kids – expected reward - no reward - unexpected reward - 1 week later measured amount of free time spent drawing with pens - Results: expected rewards spent less than half the time drawing than the no – reward or unexpected reward groups did - Extrinsic rewards actually decreased the intrinsic interest in that aactivity b) COGNITIVE EVALUATION THEORY (Deci and ryan, 1985) Evaluates how an individual perceives the impact of external rewards and thus the effect this perception has on his/her intrinsic motivation (enhance it or undermine it) A subtheory of the self-determination theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000) – 3 basic psychological needs: effectance, relatedness and autonomy THUS A REWARD CAN BE PERCIEVES TO HAVE A CONTROLLING OR AN INFORMATIONA; FUNCTION I) Control – Locus of Causality (Self – determination) If external it undermines Intrinsic Motivation If internal it enhances Intrinisc Motication II) Information – about one’s competence Greater motivation if you are starting and deserve the reward. SALIENCE: the importance attributed to a reward will determine how
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