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Kin Lecture #4 - Sept 14, 2012 copy.docx

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Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob La Rose

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Kinesiology Lecture #4 Reinforcement:  Social interaction between people or groups  Any personal interaction (evaluative comments or reactions) that will increase the occurrence or strength of a behavior or performance  Positive reinforcement – introduction of something positive that increases or maintains a response  Negative Reinforcement – removal of something noxious that increases or maintains a response (taking away something the individual doesn’t like in order to increase occurrence/strength of behavior)  Punishment – any interaction that decreases the strength of a behavior Maximizing the use of punishment – if used o Consistency – punish everyone the same for the same misdemeanor o Punish the behavior not the person o Allow input into what is the punishment o Don’t use physical activity as punishment o Impose punishment impersonally o Make sure the punishment isn’t perceived as reward or attention (some people may misbehave deliberately to draw attention to themselves – class clown) o Don’t punish errors during play o Don’t embarrass players in front of teammates o Use punishments sparingly but enforce it when you use it Too often we teach to avoid punishment but don’t teach to correct alternative behaviours  Social Reinforcement – non tangible, positive or negative, evaluative comments and reactions made by others Can be presented through either: o Verbal praise or criticism/sarcasm o Non verbal expressions or gestures (positive or critical) – these gestures usually override what was verbally said o There are a number of factors that influence
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