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Kinesiology 3222A/B
Dan Belliveau

1 Human Development Lecture 1: Pregnancy and Human Development Terms - Pregnancy o Events from time of fertilization (conception) until infant is born - Conceptus o Developing of offspring o Pre-embryo, embryo, fetus etc - Gestation period o Period of development o From last menstrual period until birth o Typically 280 days PICTURE th - Fertilization to 12 (of 40) week - Pre embryonic period o Fertilization occurs o 2 weeks of conceptus o Pre embryo dividing / moving to uterine tubes towards uterus and settle in cavity finding home to implant - Embryonic period th o Point of implantation (6 week) o Essential / critical for development o Create all 3 germ layers (ecto, endo, meso) o Start organogenesis of all organ systems o Area most susceptible to teratogenic - Fetal period: week 6-40 Egg to Embryo: Fertilization - Sperm: o Vagina, cervix (thin fluid), uterine canal, cavity, horns, tubes, ampulla o Sperm must reach ovulated secondary ooctye - Ovum viable for 12-24 hours - Sperm capable of fertilizing egg for 24-72 hours - Collected by Fimbria and migrates t ampulla hoping to meet up with sperm Sperm Transport - All of these must happen in order for successful fertilization: - Millions ejaculated - Millions leak from vagina after coitus - Millions destroyed by vaginal environment - Cervical mucus MUST be fluidic - Uterine contractions disperse sperm - Hundred-few thousand reach uterine tubes - Must undergo capacitation and acrosomal reaction 2 o Acrosomal reaction: sperm journey and fertilizing egg Capacitation - Final maturation step - Acrosomal membrane filled with lots of enzyme to dissolve oocytes protective barrier - Confers ability to swim rapidly and to fertilize egg - Weakening of acrosomal membranes o Necessary for appropriate release of enzymes Acrosomal Reaction - When sperm meets oocyte (acrosomal reaction) - Penetrate corona radiata - Sperm binds to zona pellucida (after a million dissolve layer) - Membrane dissolves to release acrosomal enzymes o Hyaluronidase o Acrosin o Protease - Only one sperm enters oocyte in humans - Polysperming is more than one sperm (birds) Completing Meiosis - Sperm loses tail and midpiece - Migrates to center - Nuclei swell - Become pronuclei - Membranes rupture releasing chromosomes - Combine forming zygote - Chromosomes replicate and complete first meiotic division Infertility - Inability to conceive an intrauterine pregnancy after a year of sex without contraception - Affects 10-15% of population in reproductive age - Only 3% infertile couples require sophisticated intervention - Often multi-factorial - 40% related to male o Sperm volume, quality, erectile dysfunction - 60% related to female o Tubual blockage (35%): Uterine tubes too narrow, scaring of uterine tubes o Abnormal Ovulation (25%): Inability to ovulate, hormonal levels Intrauterine Insemination - Type of assistance - First Artificial Reproductive Technology - Used when male is sterile - Donated sperm (artificial insemination by donor AID) - Sperm deposited within vagina or cervix3 In Vitro Fertilization (IVF Clinic) - Woman induced to superovulate o Given them Gonadotropins to produce LH - Ova collected and harvest sperm from partner - Fertilize in artificial environment (test tube baby) - Developed to 8-16 cell stage - Embryo transferred to uterine cavity Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection - Single sperm injected into egg (in female) - Sperm collected from epididymis (where they mature, healthiest) o Testicular Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (TESA) - Performed with IVF - Done due to: o Low sperm count o Poor health of sperm Picture - Fertilized egg= zygote - Sits in ampulla of uterine tubes (site of fertilization)
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