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Kinesiology 1080A/B Lecture Notes - Gamehouse, S100B, Diffusion Mri

Course Code
Kinesiology 1080A/B
Matthew Heath

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Kin 1080 Mar. 8, 2013
Marchi et al. (2013): Consequences of repeated blood-brain barrier disruption in
football players
There is a disruption in the blood-brain barrier due to the sub-concussion leading
to a surge in S100B protein and an adverse (preventing) immune response in the
An individual with increased S100B levels has shown structural changes through
the diffusion tensor imagery
This protein causes an autoimmune response in the body (very bad) the
protein attacks the cortex leading to deterioration of the cortical structures
Possibly leads to a long-term consequence of declination of cognitive
function in the athlete
There is now a very simple blood test to determine the long term risk
Due to the heading the soccer ball, women’s soccer had the highest incidence of
concussion (Brain scans taken through DTI Diffusion Tensor Imaging)
DTI technique is relatively new and it evaluates brain structure
It provides a measure of axon connectivity within the brain showing
the areas of the cortex that are related to the other areas of the cortex
When an individual gets a concussion, the shearing forces causes tears in
these axon connections
Individuals who had high levels of S100B protein levels had reduced
axonal connections
The DTI scans were done on athletes prior, during and post-season
In conclusion, a blood test along with a DTI scan provides viable information
about the brain’s structural integrity
The simplified information-processing model
Input The human (Brain) Output
- Skinner’s Theory
- Stimulus input leads to performance output (behaviouristic approach)
3-Stage Model of Information Processing
Input Stimulus Identification Response Selection Response Programming Output
All reaction times (simple, choice, discriminant) require a stimulus reaction time
We process information similar to a computer
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