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Lecture 1

Kinesiology 1088A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Autonomic Nervous System, Trash-Talk, Mantra

Course Code
Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose

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Intro to Sports Psych - Monday, September 12, 2011
Kolb’s Learning Cycle
1. Concrete Experience (CE) - actual/feeling
2. Reflective Observation (RO) - watching what happened
3. Abstract Conceptualization (AC) - make sense of it/thinking
4. Active Experimentation (AE) - try out elsewhere/doing
Scientific Method/Experiments
• Lab experiments
Typical method
• Scientific approach to developing knowledge
Systematic Observation
• social media
• gives us some kind of inkling of how people behave (how they perform)
• knowing who’s performing well simply by observing
Single Case Study
• observing a single person
• observing how people react in stressful situations/while under pressure
• what does anger have to do with motivation?
• generating knowledge using experiences and observations based on one person
Shared Public Experience
• groups of people going through similar experiences
Introspection (thoughts/feelings)
• generate knowledge based on something that has happened to you
• reflecting on what happened to you and changing your behaviour for next time
Intuition (tacit knowledge)
“just seems to be logical”
• seems that if one does something in a certain way, this is the result that will come of it
• using intuition to know what were doing, where were going and how were performing
Any systematic study of sort psychology should include the following stages :
1. Observation & Description (what is)
• depending on what you’re trying to learn, must observe an actual occurrence (can be one’s own or
someone else’s) then...
• Identify or define the essential characteristics.
2. Explanation & Analysis (why?)
Attempt to provide reasons for the findings in stage 1.
Once again, can be one’s own, multiple people’s or one other individuals
3. Prediction (what will be)
Use the knowledge obtained through observation to predict future occurrences.
4. Control (how can we?)
How can we control this to optimize performance?
What can we control to change the behaviour or performance?
Founded on the concept of objectivity (lack of bias - researchers are detached observers and manipulators of
Intro to Exercise and Sport Psychology (Kin 1088A)
Elena Koskinas

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Watch and see how people react under certain circumstances while controlling or manipulating things
• By doing this, information about how people react under certain situations can be gathered
It is a process or method of learning that uses systematic, controlled, empirical and critical filtering of knowledge
and acquired through experience.
• Figuring out what motivates athletes to better their performance
• How does a coach best go about improving the performance of his/her athletes?
These steps provide scientists with a way of collecting reliable and valid (internal) data that can then be used to develop
generalizable theories and laws of human behaviour.
HOWEVER, this is a slow and conservative process that often lacks external validity (practicality)
ALTERNATIVE : Professional
Practice Knowledge
Holistic and Experiential
• guided trial and error learning
reflecting the complex interplay of
many factors
• learning from experience
• It is often innovative and immediately applicable but less reliable and susceptible to bias
• Coaches are in scenario to help influence learning and knowledge
• Biggest difference is the central and active role of the researcher in the process of knowing (within the
research rather than a neutral, outside observer)
Pre-eminence of TACIT KNOWLEDGE
• a process of inference and intuition that integrates clues into meaning
Subsidiary awareness of certain clues
“we know more than we can tell”
“it just seems logical”
• interpreting things different ways
How do we use tacit knowledge? Use unique experience and knowledge to develop strategies.
• Generate strategies on how to operate the next time.
What to do to recreate something good that was once done and tweak it to make it better
Examples :
Case studies (one person)
Clinical reports (multiple people)
In-depth interviews (to try to draw information, “What happened in this incidence?”)
Introspective reports (reflections on how one felt, how they thought, how they did it)
Participant observations (get a collective idea of what’s going on by asking a variety of people.. bench, in
the play, watching.. to describe what’s going on to get a generalized picture)
Intro to Exercise and Sport Psychology (Kin 1088A)
Elena Koskinas
Six Steps of the Scientific Method
1. Formulation of a specific hypothesis
2. Design of the investigation
3. Accumulation of data
4. Classification of data
5. Development of generalizations
6. Verification of results (trying results with
different subjects)

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You must actively integrate scientific knowledge with professional experience and temper these with your own insights and
From the Latin - “Movere” = to move
What causes you to move?
A theoretical construct (not a directly observable phenomenon)
• Is used to account for the :
• Selection (of activity)
• Intensity (and effort that is put into the action, getting the most out of it)
• Persistence - seen in people’s actions (sticking it out)
!!of behaviour, learning or performance in any activity.
Definition :
!!the Direction (approach/avoid)
!!and Intensity (high/low… how into it are we? really into it vs going through the motions)
!!of one’s Effort
Definition :
!!the Direction (approach/avoid)
!!and Intensity (high/low… how into it are we? really into it vs going through ! ! the
!!of one’s Effort
- participant oriented (decided to do the activity)
- situation oriented (weather, feeling, time… dictates our motivation to do something)
- interaction of both (between you & the motives you bring to a situation and the situation itself and how it’s going
to affect your motivation)
Personal Factors --> Participant by-situation interaction <-- situational factors
- needs
- interests
- personality
Guidelines :
1. Both the situation and personal traits motivate participants
2. It is important for a leader and the participant to understand what motivates an individual
multiple motives
competing motives
shared &/or unique motives
motives change over time
3. Structure or change the environment to enhance motivation
4. Critical role of the leader in influencing the motivation of the participants (coaching style)
5. Undesirable motives can be changed through Behaviour Modification techniques
Intro to Exercise and Sport Psychology (Kin 1088A)
Elena Koskinas
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