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CA (650,000)
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2230A/B (300)
Lecture 1

Kinesiology 2230A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Muscle Contraction, Glycolysis, Glycogen


Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
Kinesiology 2230A/B
Professor
Glen Belfry
Lecture
1

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Chapter 1 - Energy
The key function of metabolic pathways is to make ATP available
Energy
Is neither created nor destroyed
The potential to do work
Energy from biological reactions produce heat
o Energy intake and output is measured in kilocalories (kcals) or joules
o 1 kcal = 4.184 kjoules
o 1 kcal/4.2 joules represents the amount of energy necessary to raise the temperature of 1kg
of water 1 degree Celsius at 15 degrees
The Sun
The fusion of many H atoms creates He atoms, which releases a lot of energy
The sun gives ~ 1000 watts per square metre at the equator
Aurora Borealis - Collisions between gaseous particles in the Earth's atmosphere interact with
charged particles released from the sun's atmosphere
Human Use of Energy
We need energy for ATP
As duration of exercise increases, power decreases
There are 3 different energy systems
o ATP-PCr
High power
Between 0-15s
o Anaerobic Glycolysis
Takes some time to activate
Between 0-1000s
o Aerobic
Takes a long time to activate
Starts around 1s
Efficiency During Exercise
Efficiency can be represented as
o 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑒𝑑
𝑓𝑟𝑒𝑒 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝐴𝑇𝑃
o 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡
𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡
o 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑡𝑠
𝑉𝑂2
o 𝑘𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑠
𝑘𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑠
80% of energy used in our bodies is released as heat
o It is so inefficient because at rest, all metabolic processes result in heat production of 37
degrees
The chemical reactions occurring in muscle generate heat that is vital for maintaining body
temperature (homeotherms)
Muscle contraction indicates the existence of exothermic chemical reactions, where energy is
released
Nutritional Sources of Energy
Carbohydrates, fat, protein
All composed of C, H, O, and N (protein only)
Carbohydrates are stored in the muscles, and most readily available
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