Kinesiology 3347A/B Lecture Notes - Prenatal Development, Lunar Month, Gestational Age

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Published on 12 Jul 2012
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Unit 3: Prenatal Growth
Readings: Chapter 2
Introduction
o Tends to follow chronological timelines much more strictly than postnatal growth far more
predictable
Cell Theory:
o All living things are composed of cells
o The cell is the basic functional, structural and organizational unit of life
o Cells only arise from pre-existing cells
o Cells carry genetic info in the form of DNA. This material is passed from parent cell to daughter
cell.
o How we grow via hyperplasia
o Prenatal period: conception (when zygote is formed) birth (around 40 weeks)
o Gestation - carrying of an embryo/fetus; multiple (simultaneous = twins)
o Pregnancy - fertilization and development of an embryo/fetus in a female uterus
o Gestation and prenatal growth are highly species-specific
o Mice
25 day gestation
2g at birth
Growth rate = 2/25 = 0.08g/day
o Blue whale
300 day gestation
3,000,000g at birth
Growth rate = 10 kg/day
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o Humans
259-294 day gestation (266 days on average) 37-42 weeks
~3,250g birth weight ~3.3kg
~Growth rate = 12.2g/day
Most of the mass that a human fetus accumulates is from the 4th month of pregnancy
onward
Human Gestation:
o In utero growth and development requires 266 days
o Conceptional/ fertilizational age
o Menstrual/gestational age (relative to last menstruation of mother, 280 days) - 10 lunar months
o Lunar month = 4 weeks (28 days per month)
o Approximate DOB:
Beginning of last menstruation (b/c difficult to determine exactly when conception
happened early on)
Deduct 3 months
Add 7 days
o 95% of babies born +/- 2 weeks (of this predicted DOB)
o Weight increases several billion fold (as embryo develops)
Huge increases during prenatal period
Gestation
Pediatricians guide to estimate fetal length:
o Lunar month = 28 days
o Lunar month² until 5 months
E.g., at 3 months = 3² = 9cm
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o Multiply lunar month by 5 after 5 months
o Difficult to measure b/c curled up in the uterus
Karyotyping and Sex determination:
o Human genome, 46 chromosomes arranged in pairs
o Bottom: X and Y chromosomes = male genome
o Somatic cells
= All body cells except those involved in
reproduction
Diploid
46 chromosomes
44 autosomes (non-sex related
chromosomes, men and women share
between each other)
2 sex chromosomes (23rd pair)
o Similar in size and shape, same genes for same set of traits = homologues
But traits carried on the genes are often different (one from father and one from
mother)
Homologous pairs - same size and shape
One from each parent
o Karyotyped by size and shape
o Karyotyping = method used to organize and classify chromosomes
Sex Cells:
o Haploid
o 23 chromosomes
o Random assortment of traits
Contain DNA from mother or
father
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Document Summary

Unit 3: prenatal growth: tends to follow chronological timelines much more strictly than postnatal growth far more predictable. Cell theory: all living things are composed of cells, the cell is the basic functional, structural and organizational unit of life, cells only arise from pre-existing cells, cells carry genetic info in the form of dna. Growth rate = 2/25 = 0. 08g/day: blue whale. 259-294 day gestation (266 days on average) 37-42 weeks. Most of the mass that a human fetus accumulates is from the 4th month of pregnancy onward. In utero growth and development requires 266 days: conceptional/ fertilizational age, menstrual/gestational age (relative to last menstruation of mother, 280 days) - 10 lunar months, lunar month = 4 weeks (28 days per month, approximate dob: Beginning of last menstruation (b/c difficult to determine exactly when conception happened early on) Add 7 days: 95% of babies born +/- 2 weeks (of this predicted dob, weight increases several billion fold (as embryo develops)

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