Kinesiology 3347A/B Lecture Notes - Hyperplasia, Flow Cytometry, Protein Production

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KIN 3347B: Growth and Development
Introduction
Why study growth and development?
oUnderstanding of factors playing positive roles in growth and development
oIncrease in life span
oImprove quality of life
o73 years by 2025
oHuman growth patterns are complex
oVariable among individuals and sexes
oChronological age an insufficient measure
oBetter ways of evaluating growth and its implications
Unit 1: Basics of Growth and Motor Development
a. Introduction and definition of terms
b. Patterns of post-natal systemic growth
c. Classification and characteristics
Terms:
Natal - pertaining to birth
Pre-natal - prior to birth
Neo-natal - immediately following birth
Post-natal - after birth
Metabolism - complete set of chemical reactions that occur in living cells
Catabolism - destructive metabolism; the breakdown of materials
Anabolism - constructive metabolism; the building of materials
Genotype:
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oTotal set an individual's genetic characteristics contained within his/her
genome
oUnique to each person
oOperational: a set of instructions our body will follow
Phenotype:
oPhysical expression of the genotype
oVisible characteristics
oBiochemical and tissue variants
oModified by environmental factors interacting with genotype (ecophenotypic
variation)
3 central processes in infancy, childhood and adolescence:
oGrowth oMaturation oDevelopment
Growth:
oA measurable change in the size of the body as a whole, or the size of
specific body parts
oUsually an increase in size
oDominant biological activity for first 20 years
oCellular level
oBody system, organ and tissue (cell type) specific
oWhole body growth does not necessarily parallel body part growth
o3 cellular processes:
1. Hyperplasia
Increase in cell number
1 cell about 60 trillion
Mitosis/meiosis
Neoplasia** - abnormal proliferation of cells, usually faster, tumor
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2. Hypertrophy
Increase in cell size
Increase in intracellular functional units (organelles, substrates, proteins,
cofactors/coenzymes) **
Muscular and nervous tissue primary growth form
Dystrophy = weakening, loss of function, etc.
3. Accretion
Addition of intercellular materials
I.e. collagen matrices in adipose tissue, connective tissue, or bone
Hypertrophy vs. Hyperplasia
Difficult to visually observe
Old method:
oWeight:DNA ratio
oDoes not take into account hydration, which contributes to weight
New methods:
oFlow cytometry
oExamine and measure microscopic particles
oDNA content
oProtein content
oIf both DNA and protein content increase, then it is hyperplasia
Neonatal and postnatal growth - largely hyperplastic
Childhood and onward - hypertrophic
Stage 1:
oGenetic material and total protein increase at similar rates
oIndicates cell size remains constant
oHyperplastic growth
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Document Summary

Unit 1: basics of growth and motor development: introduction and definition of terms, patterns of post-natal systemic growth, classification and characteristics. Metabolism - complete set of chemical reactions that occur in living cells. Catabolism - destructive metabolism; the breakdown of materials. Anabolism - constructive metabolism; the building of materials. Genotype: total set an individual"s genetic characteristics contained within his/her genome, unique to each person, operational: a set of instructions our body will follow. Phenotype: physical expression of the genotype, visible characteristics, biochemical and tissue variants, modified by environmental factors interacting with genotype (ecophenotypic variation) 3 central processes in infancy, childhood and adolescence: growth, maturation, development. Neoplasia** - abnormal proliferation of cells, usually faster, tumor. Increase in intracellular functional units (organelles, substrates, proteins, cofactors/coenzymes) ** Muscular and nervous tissue primary growth form. Dystrophy = weakening, loss of function, etc: accretion. I. e. collagen matrices in adipose tissue, connective tissue, or bone.

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