Chapter 13 Stress and Workload.docx

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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 3305A/B
Suzanne Kearns

Chapter 13 STRESS AND WORKLOAD October 16, 2013  High levels of stress will make you sick… (like redlining an engine… you’re gonna break)  Stress in aviation o Promotion still a stress o Uncertainty with schedule o Many divorces due to absence from home  Pilots have a culture where you just tough it out o Realize that we are human beings…  Airlines react o Counsellors/gym memberships/relieve days STRESSORS  Environmental & psychological in nature o Environmental  Vibration + noise + poor lighting + heat o Psychological  Fatigue + anxiety + frustration + anger + fear  Stressors typically have 4 effects o Produce a psychological experience o Physiological change often observable o Stressors affect efficiency of information processing o May have long-term health consequences  Understand yourself & what makes you feel better o Introverts: like to be along o Extroverts: like to talk to friends STRESS EFFECTS  Direct (bottom-up idea) o Vibration + noise + time limit + impacts information received o Most environmental stressors can be measured quantitatively  Indirect (top-down idea) o Impacts information processing  Anxiety, fear o Difficult to quantify o Mediated by arousal (alertness)  Kids can’t deal with stress when they’re tired ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS  Level of variable  determines performance impact o Too high or too low  degrades performance  In lighting + low illumination + glare  hurt performance o Intermediate levels  often produce max. performance  Detrimental effects o Concurrent (i.e. Noise masking important signals) o Delayed (i.e. Occupational deafness) THERMAL STRESS  Comfort zone o o o 73oF to 7o F in summer o 68 F to 79 F in winter  Heat stress (mental stress because you are thinking about it) o Indirect effect  Reduces tracking ability & reaction time o Moderating variables  Clothing  Air movement  Physical activity o Redesign  Suggest specific clothing + reduce physical activity + provide ample liquids + use fans  Cold stress (physical stress) o Disrupts coordination in hands and fingers o Leads to frostbite + hypothermia + health endangerment o Redesign  Utilize appropriate clothing to trap body heat AIR QUALITY  Caused by o Poor ventilation + carbon monoxide + pollution + high altitude o Negatively impacts perceptual + cognitive + motor performance  Anoxia o Lack of oxygen experienced at high altitudes  Cold & anoxia combination o Cause blood flow to fingers & toes to shut down  Makes them extremely vulnerable to frostbite MOTION  High-frequency vibration o Example: Helicopter, handsaw  Impacts precision  Design suggestion: select low-vibration tools, enlarge fonts, use vibration-dampening cushioning  Low-frequency vibration o Example: Sea swells while on a ship, light aircraft turbulence  Leads to motion sickness PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESSORS  Produce negative performance effects  Impossible to physically measure o Top-down processing to depict that someone’s stress  Result from threat of harm, loss of esteem, or fear of injury or death COGNITIVE APPRAISAL  Amount of stress is related to a person’s cognitive appraisal o It is difficult to determine what a threat is to each individual  Differences in cognitive appraisal o May not understand the risk o May not perceive the risk o May be overconfident in ability to deal with hazard o May believe they are in more control of the situation than actually are ETHICAL ISSUES  Not always appropriate to perform psychological stressor experiments  Most psychological stressor data is post hoc o Case studies and incident analysis  interview pilots + take measurements  If performed, research must justify that benefits outweigh risks o VERY difficult to justify LEVEL OF AROUSAL  Physiological arousal o Psychological stressors increase arousal  Measured via pupil diameter + hormonal chem + HR  Is a little pressure good for you?? o Yerkes Dodson Inverted U PERFORMANCE WITH O VERAROUSAL  Attentional narrowing (tunneling): restricts range of attention to concentrate on one thing – ignoring other information  Cognitive tunneling: focus attention exclusively on one hypothesis & stress reduces creativity & problem solving  Working memory loss: Less capable of storing & rehearsing new material  Long-term memory: under stress, we engage the most available thoughts and actions  Strategic shifts: tendency to “do something NOW” – to take immediate action  fast actions often sacrifice accuracy REMEDIATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS 1. Simplify design of displays + controls + procedures 2. Auditory alarms + warnings should avoid excessively loud and stressful noises 3. Training  Extensive training of emergency procedures  Generic training of stress management 4. Actions should be explicit + compatible with well-learned actions 5. Actions should not require information to be held in working memory LIFE STRESS  Life stress impacts job performance o Job stress – low pay + long hours + job uncertainty o Home stress – deaths + marital strife  Stress causes may be related to at
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