Management and Organizational Studies 3344A/B Lecture Notes - Parallel Parking

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Monday, March 12, 2012.
Training: Learning Principles Applied to Training
Reinforcement: indirect or direct feedback from the job performance
Practice: increases familiarity with the task
Repetitive Practice: ideal for motor skills (mass practice) ex. Parallel parking for new
drivers
Distributive Practice: repeat aspects of a job (learn a bit at a time), better for more
complex jobs, ex. Learning BEDMAS in elementary school. Skinner said that if you
break down any task you can teach anyone to do anything (become a lawyer, physicist)
Anderson’s (1985) Three Phases of Skill Acquisition
1st Declarative Knowledge
Know facts by memorizing or reasoning ex. Written driving test evaluates declarative
knowledge
Slow performance ex. Takes general public 3x to pass this test because most of these
individuals have IQs between 90-110 (university students are roughly 107) and the
general public isn’t as good at memorizing
Error prone
General intelligence (g) important to master
2nd Knowledge Compilation
Integrate cognitive and motor processes
Streamline behaviour
Perceptual speed important to master ex. People who play computer games do well at
this stage because of their fast motor skills
3rd Procedural Knowledge
Skill is automatic
Able to do skill and other tasks (multitask)
Psychomotor ability important to master (coordination) Not everyone has reached this
level, ex. Can’t talk on the phone while focusing on the road
Training Strategies
Speed Strategy
oCompetitive edge from reduced time for products/services
oTrain in team work and streamline methods
Innovation Strategy
oDevelop products or services different from competition
oTrain to think creatively
oEx. Boeing wants to be different from Airbus
Quality Enhancement
oOffer better product or service ex. Rolls Royce has to be unique if they want
people to pay $200,000 for them, like retracting the flying lady into the hood of
the car so it isn’t stolen
Cost-Reduction Strategy
oProvide a cheaper product or service
Training First Step: Assessing Training Needs
3 Steps
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