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MU1711 Jan 18

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Western University
Music 1711F/G
Kate Helsen

Jan 18 The Expansion of Plainchant – Ornamentation, specialization of plainchant Fixity of Chant th – 9 century – 'Romanization' of chant established in the West – mostly applied to complicated chants, such as Office. Charlemagne wants people in the Alps to sing in the Roman style – Mass Ordinary could be ornamented and embellished with TROPES (where they occur most) Prosula – just add text to already existing melodies – Likely began in France first. – Text is usually symbolically set to melisma. – Notker of St. Gall (840 – 912) writes about composing some sequences in order to remember the melody of a long melisma – Prosulas added to the end of Alleluias: sequences. – Sequences performed on special feast days to heighten occasion – Mostly syllabic (often repeat melodic lines by two's eg. Aabbccddeeff etc.) – text will be different, but will belong to framgments of melodic lines that are repeated Characteristics of Late Chant – Emphasis on the final and a fifth above it (examine cadential goals) – Melodic repetition to reflect textural repetition (especially in texts like “Kyrie”) – Sometimes musical rhyme – Zig-zag melodic lines, larger ambitus, the “Gallican Cadence” - repetition of the second note (series of three notes) characterize 13th-century (late) chant Glossing (such as embellishing) – Marginalia which comments on original text – Idea can be extended to anything: music (i.e., tropes), architecture (i.e., labyrinths), art (i.e., symbolic codes). Eg. Pg 45 picture – Not creating or inventing, but elaborating on the musical art that already exists Liturgical Drama – Dramatization of a dialogue from readings in scripture, which takes place during a church service. – Quem Quaerit
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