The Expansion of Plainchant
– Ornamentation, specialization of plainchant
Fixity of Chant
– 9 century – 'Romanization' of chant established in the West – mostly
applied to complicated chants, such as Office. Charlemagne wants people in
the Alps to sing in the Roman style
– Mass Ordinary could be ornamented and embellished with TROPES (where
they occur most)
Prosula – just add text to already existing melodies
– Likely began in France first.
– Text is usually symbolically set to melisma.
– Notker of St. Gall (840 – 912) writes about composing some sequences in
order to remember the melody of a long melisma
– Prosulas added to the end of Alleluias: sequences.
– Sequences performed on special feast days to heighten occasion
– Mostly syllabic (often repeat melodic lines by two's eg. Aabbccddeeff etc.) –
text will be different, but will belong to framgments of melodic lines that are
Characteristics of Late Chant
– Emphasis on the final and a fifth above it (examine cadential goals)
– Melodic repetition to reflect textural repetition (especially in texts like
– Sometimes musical rhyme
– Zig-zag melodic lines, larger ambitus, the “Gallican Cadence” - repetition of
the second note (series of three notes) characterize 13th-century (late)
Glossing (such as embellishing)
– Marginalia which comments on original text
– Idea can be extended to anything: music (i.e., tropes), architecture (i.e.,
labyrinths), art (i.e., symbolic codes). Eg. Pg 45 picture
– Not creating or inventing, but elaborating on the musical art that already
– Dramatization of a dialogue from readings in scripture, which takes place
during a church service.
– Quem Quaerit