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Lecture

MU1711 Feb 13

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Department
Music
Course
Music 1711F/G
Professor
Kate Helsen
Semester
Winter

Description
Feb 13 – Prelude to the Renaissance “Renaissance” – “Re-birth” of the culture of Greek antiquity into Western culture. i.e. Consonance and dissonance, music's importance in culture, – Between 1420 and 1600 – Academic re-birth through re-learning the Greek texts. Extra texts come to the West when Constantinople falls to the Turks in 1453, as many refugees flee. They took their information (Greek culture) with them. – Financial strength comes to cities through trade. Cities develop financial systems, which gives people power and money, and a cultural mix. Florence – Most famous Renaissance city with wealth and cultural/artistic elites – Cosime de' Medici (1389-1464) used his wealth the influence politics in the city. – Medici family contributed to arts in the city. Founds the largest library in Europe, Platonic Academy (modelled on an ancient Greek academy from Plato's time), patron of many artists, sculptors, musicians. This creatse a city centre where all artists come i.e. Sculptors, musicians, artists – Grandson Lorenzo de' Medici continued this. Low Counties – N of Alps – cities that were centres of trade also became centres of wealth and culture – Trade cities become centres of cultural power. Antwerp, Ghent, Tourani, Liège. Low countries also produce many different pieces of beautiful music France – 100-year war is over – France won England – War of the Roses (b/w houses of York and Lancaster) decided at the battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 – Battle between two houses to determine which family will rule England. Henry Tudor (later, Henry VII) beats Richard III – Tudors control England until 1603 Holy Roman Empire – Hapsburg Family (rule Germany, Austria, N Italy) are gaining ground. – Maximilianth marries Mary of Burgandy in 1477, gaining Burgandy – In the 16 century, another Hapsburg (Charles V) will expand into Spain, Portugal and the Low Countries. Spain th – Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille get married in the 15 century and rule Spain. – 1492 – Conquer Granada and Spain, pushing out the Muslims; fund an expedition to find a western route to Asia by... – They also expel all Jews who refuse to convert to Christianity, when they were found by the Spanish Inquisition. Portuguese Navigators – Money and power backed by many explorations to find quicker routes to Asia by the Portuguese – Manuel I, King of Portugal built a monastery for the explorers to spend their last night in Portugal, praying for safe passage. – Ferdinand Magellan, sailing with spanish funding, was the first to circumnavigate the globe in 1519, but died in the Philippines on his way back. Humanism – Place the human at the centre of all things – Human measurements, values, rationale – ultimate reference. Characterized by room for scrutiny/scepticism – Empiricism/experiment encouraged. – Breaks away from Scholasticism, where 'glossing' ancient texts is used to gain new understanding. Taking what you have and building on top of it. vs. Humanism – taking whatever we have, and asking what we know about being human. Humanism does not equal secularism. Humanists – Lorenzo Valla (1407-1457) researched the 'Donation of Constantine' and found his document was forged in the 8 century (Not original with th Constantine - 4 century) – Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536) was a priest who championed skepticism and inquiry into everything. The way to gain power was through critical thinking. Held to the Doctrine of Free Will (even when Protestants challenged it with Predestination) Literary Renaissance – Turn of Medieval/Renaissance period – many great authors not writing in Latin i.e. Dante, Boccaccio, Chaucer – Johannes Gutenberg's Printing Press in Mainz, Germany in 1455 – revolution in information – By the end of the 15 century – 6 million books produced. First printed music: Venice, 1501 Protestan
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