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Lecture 13

Lecture 13

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Department
Philosophy
Course
Philosophy 1200
Professor
Eric Desjardins
Semester
Fall

Description
Welcome to lecture #13! I Review I Assessing the acceptability of premises Assessing arguments I Three criteria: I The premises must be acceptable as premises for the argument I The premises must be relevant to the conclusion I The premises must be adequate to support the conclusion Acceptability I Acceptability I The premises must acceptable as premises for the argument Acceptability I Acceptability I The premises must acceptable as premises for the argument I Not just a matter of being true (contrary to what is suggested by Hughes & Lavery) I A premise P can be true but not acceptable as part of a given argument Acceptability I Example of a premise that might be true but is not acceptable: I “If such actions were not illegal, they would not be prohibited by the law” I P1: If actions X were not illegal, they would not be prohibited by the law I MP1: Actions X are prohibited I MC: Actions X are illegal I This is an instance of the fallacy of begging the question Empirical and non-empirical claims I How we go about assessing a claim depends on what kind of claim it is. Empirical and non-empirical claims I How we go about assessing a claim depends on what kind of claim it is. I Empirical claim: a claim that can be verified or falsified through observation or experiment Empirical and non-empirical claims I How we go about assessing a claim depends on what kind of claim it is. I Empirical claim: a claim that can be verified or falsified through observation or experiment I A non-empirical claim: a claim that is not empirical Empirical and non-empirical claims I How we go about assessing a claim depends on what kind of claim it is. I Empirical claim: a claim that can be verified or falsified through observation or experiment I A non-empirical claim: a claim that is not empirical I A claim that cannot be verified or falsified through observation or experiment Empirical and non-empirical claims I Examples of empirical claims: Empirical and non-empirical claims I Examples of empirical claims: I There are 120 students in this room Empirical and non-empirical claims I Examples of empirical claims: I There are 120 students in this room I The moon orbits the Earth Empirical and non-empirical claims I Examples of empirical claims: I There are 120 students in this room I The moon orbits the Earth I Every raven is black Empirical and non-empirical claims I Empirical claims can sometimes be hard to verify or falsify: Empirical and non-empirical claims I Empirical claims can sometimes be hard to verify or falsify: I Matter is made of atoms Empirical and non-empirical claims I Empirical claims can sometimes be hard to verify or falsify: I Matter is made of atoms I Aristotle invented the wheel (false!) Empirical and non-empirical claims I Empirical claims can sometimes be hard to verify or falsify: I Matter is made of atoms I Aristotle invented the wheel (false!) I It will snow fifty days from today Empirical and non-empirical claims I Empirical claims can sometimes be hard to verify or falsify: I Matter is made of atoms I Aristotle invented the wheel (false!) I It will snow fifty days from today I A butterfly once rested on a Blue Jays hat for exactly 1.1822372 seconds Empirical and non-empirical claims I Some non-empirical claims: Empirical and non-empirical claims I Some non-empirical claims: I Moral claims (claims about what is good/bad or right/wrong): Empirical and non-empirical claims I Some non-empirical claims: I Moral claims (claims about what is good/bad or right/wrong): I No one should ever lie Empirical and non-empirical claims I Some non-empirical claims: I Moral claims (claims about what is good/bad or right/wrong): I No one should ever lie I You ought to donate to Oxfam Empirical and non-empirical claims I Aesthetic claims (claims about what is beautiful or pleasant): Empirical and non-empirical claims I Aesthetic claims (claims about what is beautiful or pleasant): I Heavy metal is better than rap Empirical and non-empirical claims I Aesthetic claims (claims about what is beautiful or pleasant): I Heavy metal is better than rap I Domino’s is better than Pizza Pizza Empirical and non-empirical claims I Mathematically provable, analytic, and contradictory claims: Empirical and non-empirical claims I Mathematically provable, analytic, and contradictory claims: I Bachelors and unmarried Empirical and non-empirical claims I Mathematically provable, analytic, and contradictory claims: I Bachelors and unmarried I Bachelors can be married Empirical and non-empirical claims I Mathematically provable, analytic, and contradictory claims: I Bachelors and unmarried I Bachelors can be married I The area of a circle with radius r is 2▯ Empirical and non-empirical claims I The empirical/non-empirical distinction is a matter of dispute among philosophers. Some cases are especially tricky: Empirical and non-empirical claims I The empirical/non-empirical distinction is a matter of dispute among philosophers. Some cases are especially tricky: I Mathematical claims that seem unprovable Empirical and non-empirical claims I The empirical/non-empirical distinction is a matter of dispute among philosophers. Some cases are especially tricky: I Mathematical claims that seem unprovable I Claims about things that are in some sense completely unobservable, for example, the creation of the universe Empirical and non-empirical claims I The empirical/non-empirical distinction is a
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