Philosophy 1305F/G Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Common Good, Nominalism

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Philosophy 1305G Lecture 10
Week 10
What gender marker, if any, should be included on government ID?
What is gender?
What are ‘kinds’ of humans?—>The Problem of Universals
What are we talking about when we use ‘universal’ terms like male, female, red,
green, sweet…etc.
What do all members of a kind have in common?
An ancient philosophical question; Some answers:
Essentialism(Nature): regard kinds as (possible) inevitable, shaping
differential ‘essentialism’; ex. water - H2O
Plato: forms/ideas
Aristotle: essences (special features that define & characterize a
kind) ; ex. human - rational animal
Nominalism(Human): ‘kinds in name only’; ex. things starts with 'b'
Socially-constructed(In-between): Social weekends, money, nations, home
Relate to gender:
Essentialism: ‘biological’, ‘brain-based’(mind?)
Social: ‘looping kinds’; transgender is a psychological identity changed by giving
the name
What ethical values can /represent help us understand the situation?
Essentialism Nominalism
Nature Human
Def. regard kinds as (possible) inevitable, shaping
differential ‘essentialism’;
Plato: forms/ideas
Aristotle: essences (special features that define &
characterize a kind) ; ex. human - rational animal
‘kinds in name only’
ex. water - H2O things starts with 'b'
Relate to
gender
‘biological’, ‘brain-based’(mind?)
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