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Philosophy 2810F/G
Jennifer Epp

July 11 W1L2 HOW DO HUMANS EXIST • norms = we're giving a description of what is the case already - political rights already • descriptive - telling us what happened prescriptive - how it should be • the claim that they're moral rights explains how they ought to be • as shared aspects of all human morality - this approach treats HRs as moral rights that should be made into political rights, it is prescriptive, but limited since it focuses only on places where we already agree • challenge: disagreement challenge: ignores transformative aim, challenge: ordinary morality is interpersonal not political • good reasons that any justified morality would account for - this approach treats HRs as rational considerations, objective moral reasons that everyone has good reason to accept. transformative aim if we accept as moral reasons we can substantiate them as political reasons • challenge: are moral reasons objective and discoverable challenge: weak support for existence is a fake worry because no body said this could • be the only way human rights would exist but just ONE of the the ways in which it might exist HUMAN RIGHTS - UNIVERSAL OR PARTICULAR • three strategies • 1. consider claims about the existence of rights • 2. consider the function of human rights to protect freedom, well being or both? • 3. consider why people care about human rights? • we sometimes justify violating human rights by saying people aren't like us, emotional responses change in terms that we share common values • are there ways in which all humans can be well in the same way? - food clothing shel- ter- some human rights can be universal and particular • we care about things like inequality but that is because we morally care about other people - play the moral game, want to be recognized as morally valuable so we recog- nize other people as moral beings AVOIDING HUMAN RIGHTS INFLATION • what is inflation and why is it problematic? • solution 1)restrictions - HRs relate only to extremely important goods, protections and freedoms • 2. Broader justificatory tests - threat response(you have a right to something only if it is being threatened by someone else), justifiable burdens (addressee has a duty to some- one else only if it is a justifiable burden on the addressee), feasibility (ought means can) • inflated human rights, avoid this by restricting human rights to only things that are ex- tremely important, ways in which we can be free and ways in which we can be well CIVIL AND POLITICAL HUM
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