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Lecture 10

Political Science 1020E Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Industrial Revolution, Melanism, Soot

Political Science
Course Code
Political Science 1020E
Peter Fragiskatos

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Socialist party; trying to bring about society of Marxism (workers paradise)
- Evolution of socialism: now social democracy  instead of debating as
socialists and liberals have from the beginning, whether capitalism or
socialism should be basis of organizational system / ideology of modern
- Instead, debate is now between social democrats and liberals, liberals
focusing on capitalism and its benefits. Reformed liberals say that
capitalism can be humanized by education, healthcare and unemployment
(insurance) benefits, but it is still primarily focused on individuals. Social
democrats focus on the community, which matters more than the
individual. They want to humanize capitalism (which is already accepted).
If reformed liberals want to spend money on healthcare etc., social
democrats will want to spend MORE money on healthcare.
- Reformed liberals: it’s important for individuals to fend for themselves,
but the state should help out to a certain point. Social democrats more in
favour of an activist state
- Accept prediction of Marxist perspective of workers rising up (capitalism)
 enormous ability to survive (changes to survive)
- Rare to find mainstream socialist parties to push for socialism in how Karl
Marx envisioned or utopians envisioned
Fascism attractive in places such as Greece (since 2008), where social democrats
lost empowerment to conservative party
“Faces”  symbols used for magistrates or judges in ancient Rome symbolizing
unity and strength: understanding what fascism is responding to
- Concerned with lack of unity in society and the breakdown that follows
these ideas, calls for community (more important than individualism)
- Responds to the enlightenment, French revolution and industrial
revolution (like other ideologies, but later on)
- Late 1800’s – early 1900’s
- Matches with conservative ideas: inequality isn’t a bad thing, where
everyone needs to do their duty in society (King, nobility, peasants: feudal
order) = important!! (E.g. game of thrones)  everyone has their place
- Problem with liberalism is that it focuses too much on the individual and
not on what’s good for the community
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- The result is that unity is not possible for its members, furthermore the
emphasis of diversity, pluralism and tolerance leads to a division as
everyone ha their own view
- Belief that everyone has own point of view and has the freedom of
expressing it… what about unity? Better decisions made with many points
of view. What about conservatism? (More tolerant with opposing points
of view)
- Conservatism does not call for an END for democracy (main difference), it
is just skeptical to the idea  conservatives are more accepting of the fact
that democracy is an entrenched idea and so they learn to live with it
- Conservatives don’t call for doing away with opponents (liberalism,
socialists etc.) however fascists are open to this idea  BIG DIFFERENCE
despite agreement on unity and emphasis on the community
- Fascists seek conservatism as being too nice and not having ‘enough guts’
but makes interesting critiques
- Violence is not only necessary to do away with enemies, (not debate, only
through action), but is also a natural part of being human and ought to be
used to deal with problems and situations as it is effective
- Celebration of violence in Fascism = expression of freedom and doing so
at our own will
- *Socialism is a threat to unity as it focuses so much on classes through
capitalism, automatically opposing views and causing conflicting
relationship = classes rip societies apart (doesn’t maintain social unity),
only able to overcome by promoting a common national identity
(umbrella, where all could feel a commonality under) or commonality or
eliminate all competing ideologies
- Fascism inherited this idea, which came by accident from Charles Darwin
in the late 1800’s
- Ideas used later on to influence social order, ‘where the inequality
represented God’s will’ and justify inequalities among people
- All had their place, people shouldn’t move or try to move up the social
ladder as it represented God’s will
- Challenges the idea by promoting idea of natural selection. This notion of
evolution in the natural world
- Darwin’s book challenges this idea by giving us the idea of natural
Survival of species is dependent upon adaptation to their environment,
influenced by genes passed down. E.g. Peppered Moth – Wings provide
camouflage to hide from predators (blend in with trees from forest) etc.
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