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Political Science 1020E Lecture Notes - Friedrich Engels, Mikhail Bakunin, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon

Political Science
Course Code
Political Science 1020E
Charles Jones

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May 28, 2008
Ideologies: Socialism
Basic Notion
Political society based on co-operation
Philosophical Background
Plato (4th century BC)
Thomas More (16th century)
Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels (early 19th century)
oMost influential socialist was Karl Marx (1818-1883)
Most of what we now refer to as “socialism” is directly traceable to
the ideas of Marx
“Anarchist Socialists”
oBakunin & Proudhon (19th century)
V.I. Lenin (early 20th century)
Main Ideas
Humans are co-operative by nature or can easily be made to be co-operative
Based on Planning and not supply and demand
Common ownership- no private ownership
Equality of result
International brotherhood of man- humans are equal, not divided by race or
All politics are the result of economic structures
oThe “mode of production”
History is marked by a class struggle
oProduct of economic conflict
Dominant “mode of production” is currently the capitalist system
oIt produces and is characterized by two antagonistic classes
#1: the bourgeoisie
Those who own the means of production and control the
#2: the proletariat
Those workers who must sell their labour power on the
open market
Mainly the industrial working class
Capitalism is plagued by contradictions
oToo much produced and not enough consumed
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