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Political Science 2231E Lecture Notes - Social Dynamics, John Mueller, Demographic Threat

Political Science
Course Code
Political Science 2231E
Jessica Trisko

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Wednesday, 13 March, 2013
Small Wars, Civil Wars, & Intervention
The United States has engaged in 5 major wars post-Cold War:
The Gulf War (Kuwait & Iraq - 1991)
- First major post-Cold War conflict (beings 17 January 1991)
- Iraq was alleging that Kuwait was taping into Iraq’s oil using slant drilling leading to Iraq
entering Kuwait
- Issue was that Kuwait served as a buffer between Saudi Arabia & Iraq
- Goal was to force Iraq out of Kuwait, which it had claimed as province in August 1990
- First military victory since WWII
- Characterized by use of precision air power (Operation Instant Thunder)
Bosnia (1995)
- War breaks out between the Bosnian army & Bosnian Serbs (Republika Srpska) during the
collapse of Yugoslavia
- In 1993, NATO agrees to enforce a no-fly zone over Bosnia and provides support to UN
peacekeepers under attack
- In August 1995, NATO undertakes an extensive air campaign in response to Serb attacks in the
Sarajevo safe zone
- Late 1995, the Dayton Accords end the conflict
- Bush/Clinton Presidency
Kosovo (1999)
- During the breakup of Yugoslavia, Kosovo is an autonomous province within Serbia
- Kosovo had a referendum in which they voted for independence from both Yugoslavia & Serbia
- In 1996 the Kosovo Liberation Army forms after failed bid for political independence
- Mid-1998, Serbian army enters Kosovo in response to violence
- January 1999, 45 Albanians killed by Serbian forces
- February 1999 Rambouillet peace conference fails
- Russians not involved
- March - April 1999 NATO bombs Serbia and in June Serbia agrees to terms, Kosovo succeeds
to become an independent nation
- Illustrates that the U.S would only use force in combination with diplomacy
- Occurred under Clinton
Afghanistan (2001)
- U.S. cooperation with the Northern Alliance overthrows the Taliban through extensive reliance
on airpower (Operation Enduring Freedom)
- Kabul falls on 12 November 2001 and in December, Mullah Omar abandons Kandahar
- As of 2002, the U.S. & NATO forces are engaged in an occupation of Afghanistan and are
fighting an insurgency
- NATO casualties are greater during the occupation than during combat operations
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