Political Science 2231E Lecture Notes - Nuclear Reaction, Nunn–Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction, Sulfur Mustard

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Published on 27 Mar 2013
Wednesday, 20 March, 2013
WMDs and Terrorism
Do Norms Matter in IR?
Norm: shared expectation about behavior
Shared idea- among a relevant group in which the norm holds sway
Shared expectation- there is prescription (what we should do) or proscription (or what we
shouldn’t do) regarding behavior
Normative “success” cases in international security:
Nuclear weapon testing restrictions
Chemical weapons restrictions
International ban on land mines
Conventional Weapons:
Considered small arms and light weapons, land mines, cluster munitions, missiles, heavy
weapons, etc.
Convention on the restriction of certain conventional weapons (1983)
States share a normative agreement on what people believe is appropriate but not all states share
Nuclear Weapons:
Weapon whose explosive power is generated by a nuclear reaction e.g. atomic or hydrogen bomb
that generate from nuclear reaction
Currently 17,000 nuclear weapons on the planet
Subject to a variety of forms of international regulation including the Non-Proliferation Treaty
Considered weapons of mass destruction- power developed from nuclear weapons is beyond
norms of conventional weapons
Effects of Nuclear Weapons in Hiroshima 1945- destroyed cities from the shock waves from the
bombs; damages were not understood by scientists because civilians were not tested in the
creation of nuclear bombs
Nuclear Arms Control- early Cold War
Arms: efforts to limit the production (factories, research) and or deployment of arms (stationing
them in allies or your own territory to be used) through international agreements- countries agree
not to create nuclear weapon based on wasteful of arms race
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Nuclear Test Bans (details in readings)
The Limited Test Ban Treaty 1963
The Threshold Test Ban Treaty 1974
The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty 1996
Non-Proliferation Treaty 1968
Prohibited states that did not have nuclear weapons from acquiring them- divided states between
states that had nuclear weapons to states that will never acrquire them
There was limited oversight and enforcement capabilities for this treaty- no punishment for states
that were creating nuclear weapons
The treaty banned states that possessed nuclear weapons from helping non-nuclear states to
acquire them
Non-signatories include India, Israel, Pakistan an dSouth Sudan- refused to sign and developed
nuclear technology
North Korea was a signatory but in 2003 withdrew from the treaty and no longer abide by the
Other Attempts at Nuclear Arms Control
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks SULKS Talks 1972
The Interim Agreement: ceiling on the number of land and sea based nuclear missiles
The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty: limited to two ABM sites and not more than 100 interceptor
missile- defensive and allowed two nuclear powers to have two AMB site, relates back to
deterrence and the belief that arms race would generate more instability
SALT II 1979 Agreement
Imposes a ceiling of 2,250 nuclear missiles launches- limit the number of missiles
Never ratified by the US Senate but adhered to by both sides
However both also increased their overall number of warheads after signing the agreement- limit
on launchers (deployment) but did not limit production
Collapse of Soviet Union raises question about what do to with deployed nuclear weapons that
were from USSR
Then focus on IR shifted to ‘nuclear disarmament’
Nuclear Disarmament- act of reducing the number of arms that a country possesses
Cooperative Threat Reduction Program 1993
Sponsored by US senator Sam Nunn and Richard Lugar
Dedicated funds to safeguard nuclear material
Foreign aid was extended to Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and other former Soviet states
Succeeded as all nuclear weapons were removed from Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Belarus
However, there were a lot of problems with Cooperative Threat Reduction Program
Russia claimed that too much money were given to American contractors
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