Political Science 2231E Lecture Notes - Austria-Hungary, Archduke Franz Ferdinand Of Austria, Schlieffen Plan

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Published on 21 Apr 2013
The Causes and Consequences of the First and
Second World Wars 1/15/2013 8:27:00 PM
John Mearsheimer, The Tragedy of Great Power Politics 139-164;168-
202;209-224.
Scott Sagan, “1914 Revisited: Allies, Offense, and Instability,” (1986):151-
175.
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Lecture 1/15/2013 8:27:00 PM
Trisko office hours
Tues 1 3 SSC 4162
jtrisko@uwo.ca
put “2231” in the subject line
World War I
the 19th century global economy
the industrial revolution spreads in Europe and north America
freedom of global trade is underpinned by the gold standard
nationalism encourages the promotion of domestic industries
by the end of the 1990s, free trade began to collapse
Potential causes of WWI
Systemic
Creation of system of nation-states generates competition
The rise of Germany changes the balance of power
The development of a rigid alliance system
Economic change and competition
Cult of the offensive
Domestic
Rise of nationalism and imperialism
Individual
Kaiser Wilhelm’s foreign policy
Industrialization and economic competition
Industrialization in Britain and France, then Germany, Japan and the US
Prompts population growth and urbanization which contribute to
political pressures within countries
Emergence of a relationship between economic strength and military might
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Technological advances speak arms races, makes countries better
able to wage devastating wars
Overseas power projection is necessary to maintain empires
o Naval power, resources
The rise of Germany
1888
Kaiser Wilhelm II comes to power
1897
Kaiser announces of weltpolitik
o Removes Bismarck
o Goal of establishing an empire and a “place in the sun”
Naval competition with Britain begins in 1890s
Already the most powerful army in the world
1898 begins a rapid fleet expansion leading to an arms race
Series of foreign policy failures (Morocco, Balkans) lead to belief that the war
may be necessary to prevail
War in colonies clearly isn’t working, a direct war may be the only
way
The alliance system
Rigid alliance system develops based o several ententes in the early 1900s,
rather than the flexible Bismarkian system
Triple Alliance
o Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
o Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria later join
Triple Entente
o France, Russia, Britain, (Serbia)
France0russian alliance of 1894
Romania, Greece, Portugal and Japan late join
Italy switches sides in 1915
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