Political Science 2231E Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Theodor W. Adorno, Black Market, Max Horkheimer

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No 'facts': values influence our explanations & ideas about the world à theory and practice are
Knowledge is connected to human interest in emancipation or oppression
All humans share a universal interest in emancipation
All knowledge is ideological
States can be autonomous from capitalists and their interests
Praxis is necessary
Democratic process and values can create change, and are part of a new system
Social forces not just classes are engaged in a historic struggle
Additional Assumptions to Marxism:
how are people alienated from their labour, their lives, their social relationships, themselves?
how are everyday practices linked to broader human social, political, and economic processes?
how ideologies (world-views, beliefs, etc.) effect how we can understand the world and limit
emancipatory action?
intellectuals are a product of their times & contexts -- not detached or objective
role of radical intellectuals: analyze social repression and suggest change
praxis: theory and practice/action are intertwined
Agency from Karl Marx:
Names: Theodore Adorno, Max Horkheimer, Jurgen Habermas, Andrew Linklater
secular authority
the state
industrialization, industrial society
massive economic systems & enterprises
reliance on sci & tech to solve problems
capitalism = rationalization of modern existence = modernity
knowledge = control à humans
IR theory = control = state à human
problem: instrumental means-end rationality = managerial technocratic politics
non-capitalist states doing same: USSR, Cuba, China ß not question ‘process’
happiness through buying of more & more goods & services
displaying of one's ability to accumulate
people are 'consumers' above all else, esp. 'citizen'
global consumerism = prevent emancipation = accumulation
socialization via mass education systems & mass media = people to accept 'truths' and not
question their 'exploitation' -- socialization is very important to exploitation
International division of labour is not going to create class consciousness
"What's wrong with Kansas" -- why does Kansas always vote against what would be good
for their classes?
Individuals who work in a factory in one place and a factory in another do not have the
same views just because they work in a factory
There's an entire underground economy -- the shadow economy in India,
Some people will live in one place and work in another (ie. nannies) -- have different
no inherent ‘class consciousness’ --> people become work specialists, and part of global
systems -- they connect in different ways
working class is not one mind or entity but rather is a variety of interests & mindsets --
emancipation is not only emerging from the working class, but also other social groups
question: why are working class (and others) not revolting?
Frankfurt School (1950s- )
Lecture 8 - Critical Theory
6:05 PM
POLITICS 2231E Page 1
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