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POLISCI 1020E: Conservatism, Part II.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
Political Science 1020E
Professor
Charles Jones
Semester
Fall

Description
IN THE 19 THCENTURY  movement dominated by enlightenment Catholic Church Pope Pius IX (1792-1878)  1864: Syllabus of Errors: attack on Liberalism o human reason requires God‟s help to discover truth and promote human welfare  we can‟t find the truth without the help of religion o Catholic religion is the only religion of the state o anti-enlightenment; denying Church/State separation o rejection of central liberal claims o applying reason to social problem to solve them o rejection of freedom of conscious, secular education o rejection of authority of the civil law— religious law should carry the state Cultural Conservatism  prime figures were literary figures o Wordsworth, Coleridge, et al.  Coleridge (Burkean): the germs of all political truths are to be found in Burke‟s writings  sad about loss of religious faith and connection with others  favor emotion over reason o the French revolution placed too much faith in reason  simple, rural, communal life and natural hierarchy o key figures were heroic figures in the literature: these people were destined to lead (natural hierarchy)  industry is dehumanizing and alienating o world is changing quickly… for the worse o dislike mechanization of society  commerce and capitalism destroy culture and spirituality o human beings are not fundamentally market actors, we should reject mindset of businessman/material culture  worried about commercial activity and reject pursuit of profit and material wealth o emphasis is on getting and spending— superficial and shallow Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881)  British prime minister  Whigs (bourgeoisie) and Tories (conservatives— landowning aristocracy) Tory Democracy  attract support from aristocratic landowners and working class  get working class to vote conservative by addressing working class needs: improve working conditions, support right to organize and strike  encourage working class to support monarchy and church Essentially supports working class in order to get votes while saying that we are all under the King/Queen. 19 thCentury Conservatism in the US st  1 strand: cultural conservatives reject rationalist pursuit of perfection and identify harmful effects of capitalism  2nd strand: economic conservatives defend liberal society and laissez-faire capitalism o starts to refer to industrialists, the defenders of private property o free market conservatives o try to retain the time when the state didn‟t intervene Conservatism vs. Mass Society  conservatives distrust democracy: it leads to chaos and dictatorship o there used to be an ordered hierarchy, but now there is inclusion of the masses— mob mentality  masses are ignorant and unrestr
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