In Lockes state of nature the executive power of the law of nature is possed by
• A each person
• B: god
• C the soverign
• D the police
• E: guy with the biggest gun
A: each person
• My right to interpret the law of nature. If we are going to have a state and it is
going to have executive power.
• Start with what others are saying
• Identify the key issues and positions
• Look for claims that other imply or assume
Jean Jacques Rosseau:
• Died before French revolution
Rosseau on human nature:
• Desire for self preservation ( not concern of other people not idea get what I can
natural savage man is motivated by self preservation
• Pity or compassion for the suffering of others
The Natural savage
• Idea that solitary, no language, fears only pain and hunger.
• They only want simple things food senx and sleep
Social man and natural savage
• Hobbes and locke claim to be describing civilized man. What they are actually
describing is civilized human being
• Civilization has corrupted us (bad new story.. things were terrible one can say
until states came)
• Rosseau however says things get worse in the state. People who were once
naturally good have become corrupt people.
• Savages is unware of morality
o Not a thing or propostion, requires reason, savage is unaware.
o No moreal propostions of thinking of people or things
How change happens in the state of nature
• 1: Free will and 2 the capacity for self improvement.
o Free will decided to do things unlike ants or other animals can do. We also have
way for self improvement like getting apples from a tree using a tools.
• Modern interpersonal sentiments are not available for the natural savage but will
• We also come together in groups to cooperate with one another unlike the
natural savage who is lonesome. We develop cities and towns together. (love between
family however this comes with envy)
• Leisure and luxury goods corrupted needs.
o Creation of things people don’t need but come to need (rosseau says this is
corrupted because this has been attained from society) monster of are own creation.
Further developments in the state of nature
• Language and comparison of talents
o Natural savage if sees a female get her pregnant they go there own ways and
when kid is good they leave
• Rosseau if someone hits u in the head with something no emotion for revenge as they are modern social things.
• Agriculture, metallurgy, property rules of justice and inequality
• Leads to state of war
• The rich devise a brilliant plan ( we are rich and you are poor create the state a
place with multiple political tools. Rules are enforced, rich are not as benefited. Orgins of
• The law in its majestic equality forbids both rich and poor alike from sleeping
under bridges begging in the streets and stealing bread” rosseau would agree
o Law and state speak voice of equality law is law equal to everyone
o Objection Is formal equality that has a unequal distribution of food money etc…
• An +archos = without rulers
• Not chaos or confusing
• Hobbes locke says need rosseau says need a just one
• Anarchist say would be better of without govt