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Small Wars, Civil Wars, & Intervention.pdf
Small Wars, Civil Wars, & Intervention.pdf

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Western University
Political Science
Political Science 2231E
Jessica Trisko

Wednesday, 13 March, 2013 Small Wars, Civil Wars, & Intervention The United States has engaged in 5 major wars post-Cold War: The Gulf War (Kuwait & Iraq - 1991) - First major post-Cold War conflict (beings 17 January 1991) - Iraq was alleging that Kuwait was taping into Iraq’s oil using slant drilling leading to Iraq entering Kuwait - Issue was that Kuwait served as a buffer between SaudiArabia & Iraq - Goal was to force Iraq out of Kuwait, which it had claimed as province inAugust 1990 - First military victory since WWII - Characterized by use of precision air power (Operation Instant Thunder) Bosnia (1995) - War breaks out between the Bosnian army & Bosnian Serbs (Republika Srpska) during the collapse of Yugoslavia - In 1993, NATO agrees to enforce a no-fly zone over Bosnia and provides support to UN peacekeepers under attack - InAugust 1995, NATO undertakes an extensive air campaign in response to Serb attacks in the Sarajevo safe zone - Late 1995, the DaytonAccords end the conflict - Bush/Clinton Presidency Kosovo (1999) - During the breakup of Yugoslavia, Kosovo is an autonomous province within Serbia - Kosovo had a referendum in which they voted for independence from both Yugoslavia & Serbia - In 1996 the Kosovo LiberationArmy forms after failed bid for political independence - Mid-1998, Serbian army enters Kosovo in response to violence - January 1999, 45Albanians killed by Serbian forces - February 1999 Rambouillet peace conference fails - Russians not involved - March -April 1999 NATO bombs Serbia and in June Serbia agrees to terms, Kosovo succeeds to become an independent nation - Illustrates that the U.S would only use force in combination with diplomacy - Occurred under Clinton Afghanistan (2001) - U.S. cooperation with the NorthernAlliance overthrows the Taliban through extensive reliance on airpower (Operation Enduring Freedom) - Kabul falls on 12 November 2001 and in December, Mullah Omar abandons Kandahar - As of 2002, the U.S. & NATO forces are engaged in an occupation ofAfghanistan and are fighting an insurgency - NATO casualties are greater during the occupation than during combat operations Iraq (2003) - U.S.-led invasion to topple Saddam Hussein’s government begins on 20 March 2003 with the fall of Baghdad onApril 9th - Much higher initial casualty level due to sophistication of Iraqi army - Justified by WMD claim based on faulty intelligence - Followed by lengthy occupation and brutal Iraqi civil war “New” Wars (Mary Kaldor) - Emerge in the context of weak state structures and legitimacy - Diffic
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