September 25, 2013
- Inter-governmental Organizations (IGOs)
An institution created by an international agreement that has permanent
headquarters and staff, clearly defined mandate and rules, and voluntary
Only governments may be members of IGOs.
Example: World Bank etc..
Number of IGOs in existence is over 200
- Global (Most countries will be members)
- Regional (Countries in the certain region are members) – more
- Specialized (focused on one or two issues)
- Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs)
A transnational organization of private citizens pursuing policy goals in a
particular issue area.
Example: environmental groups, Greenpeace etc..
- Multinational Corporations (MNCs)
Major players in world politics because they have control of resources.
Some control more economic resources than countries.
- Non-state Nations
Ethnic minorities (large groups of people with the same language and
- Organized crime groups
Example: Mafia groups etc..
IGOs and Diplomacy
- Stable negotiating forums
- Facilitate cooperation among States
- Supervise the solution (make sure that the treaty for example is enforced)
- IGOs do not tell states cooperate but states themselves decide to cooperate and
go to an IGO for help with that, make sure the solution is more likely to happen
Pooling Resources - IGOs and burden sharing: states may decide to work together to solve an issue
and share the cost of the solution.
- Efficient problem solving: states cannot always do something on their own, such
as disease that moves across borders and organizations such as the World Health
Organization can organize campaign to wipe out an epidemic.
The United Nations
- The biggest IGO in history, experiment in cooperation after World War Two.
- Headquarters are in New York and in Geneva
- The UN is not limited to New York and Geneva it is a framework that is all over
the world with many offices and representatives.
- Official UN Languages: English, French, Spanish, Arabic, Mandarin, and Russian
- Principal Organs
- General Assembly
- Quasi-legislative: pass resolutions (decisions in the General Assembly is
- Every member of the UN is allowed to contribute in the General Assembly,
only area of the UN where this happens. (Most democratic organ of the UN,
everyone has the same voting power, nobody has more power in the GA).
- Budget (security council makes it, GA only passes it) 95% of the contributors
have a small voting share
- Security maintenance
- Dominated by developing countries: G-77 – makes them a more powerful
group by having strength in numbers all 77 countries stick together in