October 21 , 2013
LECTURE ONLY COVERS PART OF THE CHAPTER, BUT ENTIRE CHAPTER IS
Area 51 Richard Nixon
- Been around since 1942.
- Assumed to originally be used to
- Fame comes from Cold War.
- Declassified: U2 Spy planes were
developed there. Many saw these
planes being tested and believed
them to be UFOs.
- Famous Incident of the U2: In
1960, Gary Powers (Pilot)
crashed and Soviet’s caught him
and forced him to confess.
- Inspired D21 plane, which took
its place, working as a precursor
to drone technology – plane
without a pilot.
- Used to test Soviet planes against
American planes during the 60’s.
Found that planes were equal,
and it was ultimately on the pilot
to who would win.
- F17 Nighthog – planes still being
developed (drop bombs).
- Surrounded by conspiracies –
aliens, testing energy weapons,
What are civil rights?
The political, social, and economic rights that each citizen has by virtue of
simply being a citizen, and which are usually upheld by law.
o Minority groups – just as much emphasis on individuals as minority
groups (race, gender, sexual orientation, age, religion, etc.).
o “Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”
Where did they come from?
Bill of Rights
Civil War Fourteenth Amendment
o Applies the Bill of Rights to all the states after the Civil War. Despite
this, many (especially non-whites) still face(d) much discrimination.
Seven Common Stages that These Groups Go Through When Trying to Ensure their
1. A Group Defines Itself
o Redefines themselves
o Redefine themselves as victims of discrimination, challenging the
current power structures to change how people understand
o Victims of discrimination
o Dominant power structure
o Challenge narrative
o E.g. Clubs Week – a group defining itself.
2. Challenging Society
o Enter the political arena and demand rigjts.
o Go beyond “formal channels” and use things like riots, protests, etc.
o These informal channels are not necessarily peaceful or totally violent.
3. Shifting the Narrative
o Fight to change the dominant narrative about them (e.g. phrenology –
study of scull size in relation to IQ; Social Darwinism).
o Local level discrimination.
o Education, voting laws, etc.
o Because minority groups are often concentrated in specific areas,
discrimination often begins at the state or local level. Local
governments control education and voting policies, and it sometimes
takes the federal government to come in and change it.
5. Executive Ice Breaker
o Executive orders.
o Create opportunity, momentum.
o E.g. Obama’s undocumented aliens – a civil rights issue around
immigration (aka. The Dream Act).
6. Congressional Blockbuster (READ UP MORE ON THIS– WILL BE ON EXAM)
o Fourteenth Amendment
o Civil Rights Act (1964)
o “Ultimate arbiters.”
o Interpretation, application.
o The court decides who is right.
These steps see a lot of overlap – especially in terms of federalism. This makes it
difficult for those pursuing civil rights, as it means that they have to appeal to multiple
powers and structures. Power centers in the United States include the Supreme Court, House of Representatives and the Senate (Congress), Executive Branch, President, and
on an informal level to the public and society – you have to appeal to the people.
Change is hard!
Court and Civil Rights
o Equal Protection Clause
o Fourteeth Amendment
o “No state shall deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal
protection of the laws.”
o The court will look at this – whether it is coming from a racial, gender, or other
kind of group, will apply different levels of scrutiny.
o Judicial Framework
o Classificaton of Groups
o Race, ethnicity, etc.
o Social norms/sentiment scale.
o Three categories
o Suspect categories
o Quasi-suspect categories
o Non-suspect categories
Suspect Categories – highest level of scrutiny
o Race, ethnicity, or legal aliens.
o Strict scrutiny
o “Compelling interest”
o Cases of these categories will receive a lot of attention, and almost always gets
struck down by the court for being unconstitutional – unless the government
has a compelling interest.
o Intermediate scrutiny
o “Important” state purpose
o Virginia Military Institute
o If the Act does not rest on an important state purpose, it will be struck down.
Non-suspect Categories (all of the others)
o The “others”
o Age, disability, wealth, etc.
o Rational basis scrutiny
o Lowest, default level
o Oregon – Struck down Oregon’s attempt at an act to ban Catholic
Schools – there was no rational basis to ban them and was therefore
Slavery and Civil Rights
o 1500 – 1900
o 12 million Africans – taken from Africa. o 10 million survive – the rest mostly died on the ships. Of those, around
4 million went to the US.
o Trans-Atlantic slave trade officially ends.