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Western University
Political Science
Political Science 2246E
Robert W Waterman

Chapter 3Most organizational theorystudies of improving private sector management particularily large corporations When saying organization theory we are talking about our need to understand what people do how things get done and why we have organizations Theories of business management have spread to public sector management Democracy and fairness vs rationality impersonality and efficiency Public administration theory and practicestruggling to adapt and extend aspects of private sector managment into the publicClassic Theorists Effect on the power structure of society of the development of largescale organizations How does big government or business affect a societys political lifeKarl MarxClass conflict and alienation were central to understanding bureaucracy He was influenced by Hegel who thought it was a bridge between the state and society Statecommon interest bureaucracymedium of transferring this interest It was a universal classMarx rejected thisnot will of society Bureaucracystruggle over possessions Desire to claw up career laddermotivation for bureaucrats He also rejected hierarchy which would only hurt lower officials while protecting those on top In a capitalist society the bureaucracy maintains class distinctions and allows business class to rule It will always act in the longterm interests of the business class It is responsible for alienationppl see it as an oppressive impersonal force Bureaucrats themselves are alienatedhierarchy discipline and authority promote alienation This stifles workers initiative and imagination while reinforcing fear of taking responsibility and risk State ends become private endsMarx concluded that during the transition from feudalism to capitalism the transition from rule by the aristocracy to rule by the bourgeoisie there was a contest for political power in which the state took a relatively autonomous position He felt that the bureaucracy was able to gain an abnormal level of independence and political influence The bureaucracy helped pave the way for capitalism according to Marx but once capitalism was established the bureaucracy reverted to its previous role of supporting the ruling interests of society As a result Marx saw bureaucracy as a parasitic body that did not contribute to the productive forces of society but rather fed off the rest of society its real task being to maintain the status quoMarx wanted communism over capitalismexploitation would end and therefore we would no longer need any institutions that sustained exploitationclassless society without bureaucracyCapitalist societyclass conflict in which working class is oppressed Stateautonomous from capitalist class but serves its interests Also has its own interests focused on survival and employees Society and bureaucrats suffer from alienation derived from hierarchical nature of bureaucracy Revolution will rid society of bureaucracyNeoMarxistsCapitalist state a fosters capital accumulation profit motives and b ensures working class does not rise up and revolt against dominant class State passes policies of legitimation to appease the class without interfering with the first profit objectiveBureaucracy serves the capitalist class because similar origins and because the state is capitalist and therefore constrained by the structures of capitalism It is ultimately a threat to democracyCriticism is bureaucracy merely a tool or tool powerful Furthermore how can it only serve the capital class when policies are enacted to serve the working classMax WeberBureaucracysystem of administration carried out on a continuous basis by trained professionals according to prescribed rulesFour featureso1 hierarchy in which everyone has a clearly defined role within a division of labour and answers to a superioro2 continuity in the sense of fulltime salaried occupations and career structures
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