Political Science 3340F Lecture Notes

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Political Science
Political Science 3340F/G
Marta Dyczok

Political Science 3340F: The Rise and Fall of Communism in the USSR & Eastern Europe September 11 , 2013 Readings  in the course reader, lots of Internet sources, film fireman’s ball Class Hours: Wednesday: 11:30 – 1:30 Instructor: Prof. Marta Dyczok, e-mail: [email protected] Office: Stevenson 2246 Office Hours: Thurs 11:00 – 12:00  Communist countries, and the rise and fall of communism o Many formerly communist countries are no longer communist and are trying to become part of the EU  I.E. NATO  More info about what is going on in this part of the world  KGB (archives)  Misunderstandings, why? Different perceptions and portrayals  Political history and structure of communism (interdisciplinary approach) o What happened yesterday that shaped today  What is Eastern Europe? How is it defined and why did communism come to this world?  Was the communist experience the same in all of them?  Was there a problem with the economic system?  What are the different perspectives?  How do we define the regions of Eastern Europe?  Map of Europe  Europe shifts into conceptions of E and W, NOT N and S  1945: Europe politically divided, E and W concepts resurfaces o Changed with the collapse of communism  Ukraine  being debated  Diversity and similarity (communism)  Physical geography and mental maps how we think of places  Subjectivity and objectivity  what facts are important? Interpretations Course Content th  20 century, political history course  Communist system (political structure, ideology, economic system)  Social policies of society  Foreign policy and the collapse of USSR Goals  Knowledge and skills, critical reading and writing, analytical ability  Pick a country  FP, gov’t, follow the news, political history, etc.  Lib instruction section  SSC q  Class participation next week  Short essay  political history and how did communism come to Country  Research paper  list of questions, or select your own but check with prof th September 18 , 2013 The Rise and fall of Communism in the USSR and Eastern Europe Next week: SSC 1032 Short Essay: How and why did communism come to this country? Intro  Political history over the past century  Difficult to get a clear picture of what was going on before communism scholars were writing behind the iron curtain  Communist party wanted history to be written in a way they wanted it to  distorted image of what was going on  Western scholarship was also hard: didn’t have access, so it wasn’t 100% accurate  Scholarship was politicized  western as well as Eastern o Ideological enemies  Some scholars were apologists and some critics of communism  When it collapsed, all of the info was available  In the mid 1990s, book published we now know o The west had it pretty accurate  Defining terms : behind the iron curtain o People think of the east as one big area  One big, evil zone  BUT actually diverse  History  1789: French Revolution  1989: collapse of the Berlin Wall, collapse of Communism  History plays an important role in the political systems and really matters  1914 Russia: borders gradually change, 2006  Larry Wolf: Mental Maps o Perceptions of Europe has changed over the centuries , specifically borders  Geography matters importance of geographical history is pointed out by many scholars o Geopolitical situation assists a country o How to define a border between continents is difficult  asia and Europe  Eastern Europe is constantly invaded by others o Serious economic crises o Different level of progress when being constantly attacked  Geographic factor o Navigable Rivers  affect trade routes, run north and south th o Shapes the history of the region before the 20 century Ideologies, Wars, and Partitions  Nationalism vs. Imperialism o As Europe develops, these two ideals  Pre 1914, Imperialism was popular, as was Nationalism o Some states that are expanding, and other groups saying they want to define themselves differently  Ottoman Empire, Habsburg Dynasty, and Russian Empire  All of these imperial entities are facing Nationalism, or a nationalist threat  Ottoman Empire o Sick Man of Europe already started falling apart pre 1914 (Balkans started separating from Otoman before WWI) o Conquered and gained land o Militarily powerful o In a state of decline at the end of the century  Austro Hungarian Empire o Used to control most of Europe o Not a bad empire, expand and conquer, and let people keep their culture and language, but in regrarsd to political rihgts, still under possession of Empire o People that they conquered had some autonomy o 1849: Parliament is established  Russian Empire o Autocratic, harshest o Everyone was forced to speak Russian o Tsar shot down the use of Ukrainian language o Secret police o Over 100 cultures in the empire  Increasing wave of Nationalism  why should we obey an imperial power? o On the rise as other tensions occur  WWI and the collapse of Empires o  initiated with the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand o Not being given enough rights o Pushing for independence and autonomy o All of the empires collapse as a result o At the end of the war, individual groups claim independence  new nation states o Imperialism disappears as an ideology, and new ideas dominate  Constitutionalism, Socialism, Nationalism, Fascism  National Self Determination: Paris Peace Settlement 1919  League of Nations  Paris Peace Settlement 1919 o Defined new borders Interwar Soviet Union and Eastern Europe  Bolshevik Revolution  socialist ideology becomes a strong influence  In 1917, Lenin becomes famous  Came to Petrograd in 1917  seize power and say they are in control o Renounce all laws of the Tsar o Promoting a socialist ideology, but problem of nationalism  New nations have declared independence at the time the Bolsheviks claim Soviet independence o Cannot control the entire previous Soviet Empire o Consolidate and call it USSR  socialists with nationalist groups, formed a union with nationalist groups and are now recognized  They believe there is going to be a world revolution o They believe that socialism will spread o Start thinking in socialist rather than nationalist ideas (workers of the world unite)  By 1923, capitalism isn’t collapsing and socialism isn’t expanding o They create and limit rights of nation states  In the interwar period the Bolsheviks seize power and set up a federal republic o In the rest of the world  winners and losers post-war o Versailles Europe o Serious of treaties negotiated in Paris  new borders drawn, some nations get large territories, and other get small (winners and losers of the war)  Austria and Hungary loses territory  Not all nations get a state  31% of the population of Europe lived in a country where they didn’t think they should be o Led to tension and dissatisfaction  Rise of fascism  radical notion of nationalism o Corruption through various groups  Leads to political instability and economic crisis World War II  How did the alliances shape up?  Peace of Versailles settlements  Germany, Austria, and USSR were the biggest losers of territory and thus they form an alliance triggering the war  Causes  territorial, revisionism, ideological, economic issues, o The war ends with the Red Army advancing all its way to Germany  alliances change o 1944: Red Army advances onto eastern Europe  Ends all the way in Berlin  Liberation of Eastern Europe from Nazi-Fascist enemies o Communism starts in 1944: shapes different experiences  In the Russian Empire it is the revolution that create the socialist state  Socialism and communism comes to different places at different times Summary  Many ways of thinking about Europe  mental maps are constantly shifting th  Ideologies shaped political events in Europe during early 20 century  Clash between imperialism and nationalism and changed the ideological makeup  Socialism takes off in the eastern region of Europe  The 3 empire that controlled all of Europe I 1914 collapsed, and nation states appeared o Have difficulty consolidating borders o WWI once again changes the map  At the end of WWI, the Soviet switches sides and expels all Germans out of Czech o People are forcibly transferred to create more homogeneous states nd Week 4: October 2 , 2013 The Communist Takeovers Introduction  Communist takeovers in eastern Europe 1944+  Defining our terms: o Behind the Iron Curtain  the communist world o The USSR – communist, but distinct  USSR, Romania, Hungary, etc.  15 republics existed in the USSR  In theory, meant to be made up of federal states  Ukraine Georgia Armenia  no indep FP, or currency  Existed in admin territory of the USSR o Eastern Europe  Poland, Germany, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Albania, Czechoslovakia The USSR and Communism  When and how did communism come to the USSR  1917 as a result of the Bolshevik revolution  imperialism, nationalism influence  Nation states created  Poland Hungary Serbia  Socialist revolution in 1917  defining ideology in large parts of the Soviet  Bolsheviks fighting against imperial order, and nationalist o Different kinds of upheaval  USSR is created and becomes a state  set up as a federal state o Union of Socialist Soviet Republic  Nationalism was a powerful force  created their own armies, as well as nation states  Bolsheviks tried to impose a socialist order o National and foreign intervention o Red army used to eliminate statehood in Georgia  Concession made to nationalism  you can be part of the soviet  Pragmatism and socialism is the future  ultimately wont matter, people will become soviet and their national identity wont be an issue  Internal revolution starting in St. Petersburg  1919-1920  Lenin and Bolsheviks would believe communism to spread o Some evidence that this did happen  1933  socialist revolution is not spreading o other movements have failed o Nation states taking off and established  reorient their foreign policy o focus on building socialism in one country o Comintern  o Dictate to other communists in other countries what they should do o Tells other communist countries not to act until there is another revolution o Next revolutionary opportunity will come, and that’s when we will go ahead and that’s when the next world rev will occur  WWII next revolution o 1939-1941 first phase  Hitler and Stalin  USSR allowed to reclaim land lost at end of WWI  Germany takes other parts of eastern land o 1941-45Germany attacks Stalin (The Grand Alliance)  Britain, USA, and USSR (Grand Alliance)  Ideological differences are put aside  By 1943  grand alliance is in the lead, begin to meet to discuss post-war reconstruction  Settle border issues o Some argue that eastern Europe is given to the USSR by western alliances  Churchill’s copy of the percentages; secret agreement with Stalin o Reconstruction o Not prepared to let Stalin have complete control  Yalta Conference 1945  establishes four zones of control o German Democratic Republic (east) and Federal republic of Germany (west) emerge in 1949 o Establishment of the Berlin Wall (1961) o Fate of eastern Europe was decided  FDR, Churchill and Stalin (In Soviet control, borders drawn o Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Etc become communist and a part of the USSR  West sold Eastern Europe to Stalin  why did the west agree?  Would remain independent and would be liberated by the Red Army o 100km from Berlin  already in Eastern Europe  acknowledgment of the status quo  the west acknowledges what is occurring  they have the right to hold elections and choose their governments o at the same time, Pacific War is going on with the US  main concern o USSR expands territory and the war is over  Poland, Romania, Bulgaria , etc becomes communist  Expanding influence and territory  Became a super power as a result of what happens at the end of the war Eastern Europe and Communism  Result of WWII that communism comes to eastern Europe  In the interwar period countries were nation states and democratic  Red Army pushes back  West allows things to happen  Communist takeovers are gradual  1944-45  still part of the Grand Alliance o Setting up a post-war order that is most beneficial to them  FDR said US troops will pull out 2 years after the war  Stalin did not chose to behave with force because of all US troops o Justifies gradual change/takeover  Stalin waits for US to withdraw troops from Europe  Salami Tactics  Sliced the freedoms from Eastern Europe like salami; one piece at a time Phase 1  period of mixed gov’t  Elections held in all these countries  Gov’ts composed of different political parties, socialist don’t hold the majority o Instruments of force  strategically place leaders in positions they want to occupy  Press is still relatively free at this period  Take control of the land reform process  When the process of change happens they are in a strong position o Agrarian based societies  control the distribution of land process Gradual tightening of communist control  Phased that people weren’t aware of what was going on  Problems having meetings, lights will go out, people breaking up meetings o In terms of organization  Non communist newspapers have problems o Trucks break down, papers never delivered  Police don’t respond to investigate  Free flow of info is being compromised  Communists begin infiltrating more popular parties and splitting them up from the inside  Pseudo parties set up  similar names of parties to cause confusion and get rid of support for particular parties  Those who raise an alarm are extremists  Phase 3 Open communist Control  Ultimately takes control  Non communists forced out of office  Non communist parties are banned  Opposition is prohibited from media  Travel is shut down  Lack of info overall  Countries are renamed  new constitutions  Start changing the economic structure o Isolate these countries from international contact o Marshall plan/aid is happening elsewhere in Europe  USSR shuts down aid  Western contact shut off Yugoslavia and Albania  Civil war, Tito,and King Peter  Yugoslavia has a civil war  led by Tito and fight against monarchists  41-45  Tito and the communists with the civil war in Yugoslavia and reintroduce communism o Communism comes from below o Models himself on Stalin o Changes things in Yugoslavia  Tito in charge, not a puppet  Will negotiate trade agreements when beneficial  Stalin doesn’t like this  tensions erupt between leaders  Tito is aggressive  wants own police, and Stalin wants to impose own in Yugoslavia o Too aggressive for Stalin o Yugoslavia is kicked out of the Comintern 1948 Albania  Hoxha is the communist leader of Albania and King Zog  Introduces more aggressive and horrific than Stalin  Not controlled by Stalin, but came to power non the less  Same oppressive control over society, and economic structure The X Article  George Kennan wrote it  US diplomat in Moscow  Wrote it anonymously  Watching salami tactics unfold  Need to introduce policy of containment  Becomes the architect of Containment  Ideas that shape US FP against the Soviet during the Cold War  By 1948, the Cold War has begun  Eastern Europe under communist control  Relationship between former allies at Yalta, are now opposed to one another  Did the communist takeovers in Europe occur because of the onset of the Cold War or did the Cold War cause the communist takeovers? o Takeovers were gradual o Happened over time and in phases o Stalin took advantage of the opportunities o Set up for the Cold War  Geopolitical, ideological, Questions for Essay  Thesis 3 clear distinct points supporting argument or expository paper?  When and how did communism come to the country you have selected for current affairs reporting?  Minimum number of primary sources? o What happened, how and why o Is this a revolution, etc. o Why did these countries become communist?  Armenia  Doesn’t exist as a political entity; Russian empire o Doesn’t exist on its own o Communist country as part of the USSR   Waned to be communist? Or did they basically have no choice  Cant be viewed in isolation Week 5: October 9 , 2013 High Stalinism Essay proposal  Topic  thesis  Paragraph or 2 on how you prepare to answer the question  List of sources  minimum of 10, bibliography Guest Speaker: Stalinism  How communism came to Eastern Europe, etc.  Stalinism  who is he, and his impact  Stalin’s personality o Influenced by radical ideology  Revolution at the end of the 19 century o Creators of Russian socialism o First Christian community that created communistas  Became major idea that resulted in a movement  Communistas Judeo-Christian roots  book of the Aes, ch.2-5 o Distribution of property based on the communist principal o Millennium  Stalin began as a Christian student  Socialism had different origins than communism o French revolution  socialism o Social justice without state?  Resurrection of old ideas  Society without state control  …  Some people rejected discipline of the state and party organization  Anarchists th  All of these theories influenced 19 century Russia o Popular ideas of French socialism  Populism  narodmiki  Before Marxism and communism  3 main currents of populism  Propagandist  Everything about peasants were idealized  Transformed community into a Christian Jerusalem into a socialist system  Peaceful methods  spread French ideas of socialism and anarchy out and prepare for future revolution  Anarchists  Rejected previous idea  Immediate revolt and anarchy  Professional terrorism  Emphasized role of the people, killing tsarists and officials, provoking revolution  Creating a state without revolution  INVOLVED PEASANTS  both groups  First terrorist organization in the world o First school of terrorism  Conspiratorial Rule  Group that emphasized conspiracy with no presence of the people, just few group of trained killers or assassins that would remove ruling parasites  Then build the foundation of society, asking normal people to join  Peasants denounced all 3  new theory = Marxism  Marxism  Displaced populism  Many people that joined were influenced of ideas by the populist trend  International solidarity  revolution should happen in major industrial nations  Lenin  Revised Marxist theory  New Imperialism  used idea to show we have uneven developments in the world  Weak link in the chain of imperialist nation  When revolution started in Russia, only would start in developed places  Marx rejected peasants as a proletariat group  Lenin brought the idea that peasants could be revolutionaries  Conspiracy theory o Professionally trained revolutionaries could overthrow the gov’t o Young Stalin joined the revolution of Marxist-Lenin communism Stalin  Stalin’s mentality was in the Christian ideology  Names of major Marxist groups o Major party was Russian Socialist Democratic Workers Party o All Marxists groups called themselves social democrats  Because of Lenins influence 1903, this party was divided into 2 groups o Man of Majority  Bolshevik, follow idea of Lenin  Conspiratorial group o People of Minority  Mensheviks  ‘Koba’  Stalin fell in love with his work o Popular among many Russian intellectuals  First group of professional terrorists  Zelots o First written source of terrorism in the bible o Palestinian terrorist group  Young Koba (Stalin) taken out of school o Sent to exile to Siberia and changed pen name to Man of Steel, or Man of Stalin o Still believed Russian empire and nationalist theory was most important idea to his idea o Not a charismatic leader o Russian orthodox rule is essential to rule  Criticized for chauvinism/terrorist acts  He missed education, which most revolutionaries and scholars had (rulers)  Never spoke other languages other than Georgian and Russian  Tried to go to school in the west only for a year  Many leaders of the Bolshevik party lived in the west and spoke other languages o Russian nationalism o Cautious about west influence o Self-educated, read a lot  How he understood and interpreted what he read was the problem o Understood in the Russian way o Socialist revolution took off in the way he wanted / interpreted revolution  Not a leader of the 1917 revolution  Stalin was elected by Caucasus, but not leaders like Trotsky  Stalin was elected as Minister of Nationalities o When the party grew, 1922 Lenin raised questions on what we do as bureaucrats o Appointed General Secretary in 1922  un-prestigious position in the party  Then consolidated power after the death of Lenin October 16 , 2013 Stalinism, Revisionism, and Decline  Iosif Vissiaronovich Djugashvill  Stalin  Becomes a revolutionary in 1902  1912  named to CC  Exiled in Siberia in 1915 o Adopts the name Stalin  man of steel  Participated in events in Petrograd (St. Petersburg)  After revolution, he becomes one of the inner circle of Bolshevik party  He was always the worker; Lenin was the intellectual o Not that close to Lenin  Becomes the General Secretary  communist party, position that no one wants o Then makes it the top job after the death of Stalin o Lenin’s death: letters  Says Trotsky is too arrogant, and Stalin is too dangerous  succession system was not established  Rise to power o 1924-27  outmaneuvering o Trotsky, Bukharin, Zinoviev, Kamenev  allied with 3 against Trotsky  Stalin consolidates power and radically changes socialism o Stalinism is a term coming into usage after his death  controversial term  Marxism and Leninism o Stalinism  used methods of terrorism = Different than Lenin o Basic ideology based on Marxism  Goal: to achieve socialism o Stalin say enemies in the inner circle and got rid of anyone who disagreed  Executions o Introduces socialism in one state  fundamental departure from Marxism, which was universal o Marx said state would wither away  oppressive instrument  Stalin made the state very powerful  Why? Justifes what he did  Believed the revolution would spread  But only had control over the Soviet Union  need to consoldidate what they have  Soviet union was less developed than other parts of Europe o Need to use whatever means necessary to catch up and take over Stalinism: The Method  What does he do?  Centralization of power  Rapid industrialization  Forcible collectivization of agriculture  Control of hearts and minds o Control of media, newspapers, etc. force people to think like him  Use of terror legitimized o Building utopian society Ideologue or was he ruthlessly pursuing power? Results of Stalinism  Industrialization  exporting grain to the west  Great economic advancement BUT at human cost o Forced famine in Ukraine 1932-33 o Sealed all the borders and exported and sold grain to the west Develops Cult of Personality  Terror and totalitarianism  Forced to glorify him  pictures, poems, oaths to Stalin  Feature of what he did to society Stalinism Exported  2 phases  territory becomes USSR 1 Phase: Belarus, etc.  2 phase  Soviet Bloc  Eastern Europe  reproducing what he had done in the Soviet Union o Salami tactics Eastern Europe Stalinized  Politics  The economy o Industry o Agriculture  Society o Mass media o Education o Private life  encouraged children to spy on their parents and report of blasphemous acvtivity against the party, and would be glorified  Institutions’ o Cominform  Communist information Bureau o Comecon  Council for mutual economic assistance o Warsaw Pact  Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance  Response to Marshall plan  Aid promised to rebuild Europe if they conformed Exceptions  Yugoslavia  communists come to power on their own rather than through Stalin  Tito refuses to submit to Stalin’s control o Tito is more hardlined in FP than Stalin o Stalin wants to control secret police, and trade  1948  Titoism and Stalinism  Tito more Stalin than Stalin  Leads to crack and breakup of Yugoslavia of Coninform Stalin’s Death 1953  Soviet Union exists til 1991  Revisionism and decline post stalins death  Stalins Empire after Stalin  2 levels of Empire Stalin set up o Internal  USSR o External  Eastern Europe  Difference between inner and outer  Power struggle post death o Competitors, Malenkov, Beria, Khrushchev  Beria was the leader of the NKBD  Stalin’s executioner  Malenkov runs state bureaucracy  Khrushchev high up in party  2 agree Beria needs to be eliminated, executed and put on trial  With his death the period of terror ends  The Thaw  less terror and repression in society o Policy of détente  Khrushchev wins power struggle  1956-64 o Has the secret speech  brings together the communist party in a closed meeting, reps from all over Soviet Union and gives speech o Denounces Stalin and says he took Soviet Union down wrong path from Marxism  time for a change o Denounces cult of personality o Reign of terror is over o Leaks out  going to new direction  Revolution in Eastern Europe and IR  Polish October 1956 o Boleslav Beirut by Wladyslaw Gomulka o Gomulka negotiates new deal for Poland  They need a better deal  stops repression of church and collectivization  Hungarian November o Party divided o Push to leave Soviet Bloc  never wanted to be in bloc, and Stalin is dead o November Red Army crackdown on Hungarian uprising o 25,000 people killed, 200,000 refugees flee to the west o leader killed and replaced by a hardliner o West did not get involved at all  Face of re-Stalinization  Re-stalinization o Inner empire  conformity reintroduced o Foreign policy  Cold War intensifies after all of this o Crackdown within USSR o Cultural conformity reintroduced  Thaw, Refreeze, o After 1956, politics resemble seasons winer, spring, winter o 1953-56: thaw: destaliniz o 56: re-freeeL re-stalniszation o 1961: de-stalinization  1957 o Krushchev at the UN  becoming more aggressive  Loosrns then tightens reigns, then tightens again o Cold war intensifies  Sputnik  From Krushchev to ksygyn o Krushchev under fire  International embarrassment  Cuban missile crisis, Bay of Pigs  Party elite wants to keep privleges  Apparatchiks threatened by proposed economic reforms o Removed from power in 1964  Not killed, but first leader not killed  New power struggle ensues  Warming of relations with the West  By late 1960s, Leonid Brezhnev emerges as leader  Brezhnev o In power for a long time o Period known as developed socialism o Recession Different Roads to Socialism  Eastern Europe o Romania given own FP  Ceausescu  trading with who he wants, stalinistic ideas o Czech  becomes flashpoint in 68  Economic difficulties on the rise  Tensions between Czechs and Slovaks  Socialism with a human face  Dybcek replaces Novotny Jan  Prague Spring  Period of liberalization in arts and politics  Period of cultural revival  20-21 August Empire on the Side  Prosperity of stagnation ‘zastoy’  Détente  NOMENKLATURA  new elite of the communist party  Growing dissent politically  Growing debt Charter 77  Group formed in 1977  Czech guy becomes leader  Band called the plastic people of the universe  got arrested and thrown in jail o This group said musicians shouldn’t be arrested  Then this group was arrested  Growing dissidence Poland 1980  Crisis brewing for awhile  Price rises, protests and concessions  1978 Karol Wojtyla  Lenin shipyard  Polish cardinal gets elected Pope  catholic church doesn’t get shut down, allowed to exist  1980 prices go up and leads to massive strikes o head of communist party of Poland calls Marshall law  lasts 2 years  Poland vs. Hungary and Czech o Polish gov’t cracks down on its own people, rather than Red Army o Way of assering polish independence  not allowing a foreign power to come in  Poles arresting poles  inner conflict occurring  After death of Khrushchev  Gorbachev  Leads to collapose of the Soviet Union Summary  Man of humble origins  Leading figure of 20 ce  Stalinist model  model of gov’ts  Exported to Eastern Europe  Stalins death to solidarity, revisionism and socialism o Not a static era,  Thaw, refreeze, thaw  Internal and external factors Discussion Questions 1. Was ideology an important component of Stalinism? 2. Why was Stalin able to impose his model on Eastern Europe? 3. Why is Stalinism controversial? o Did have an element of ideology when he created the model 4. How important was Stalin in the outset of the Cold War? 5. Why did the socialist bloc hold together after Stalin’s death? 6. What were the advantages and disadvantages of membership of the soviet bloc? o Similarities and differences in the region 7. Which factors led to outbreaks of opposition in the post-Stalin years? o Economic depression/stagnation o Political and social rights/freedoms o Intra-elite struggles rd October 23 , 2013 Politics- the Structure  Essays due Nov 20th o Check out page 3 of syllabus for sources o Well researched, well structured, and well written, clear topic  Don’t tell the story; answer the question  \  Fish skeleton  intro as the head, agree or disagree with question  Body, the why   Counter argument  Conclusion  overall…  Introduction  Poltics— Power  Note on Terminology: o Socialist/communism o All different, but some features are the same o Body  structure, souls  ideas The Party  Communist party of the soviet union  Functioned on the principle of democratic centralism  Terms: o CPSU o Democratic Centralism o Central Committee o Politbureau o Gen Sec  Structure o Built in a pyramid o Composed of membership on voluntary basis  accepted by local branch o Regional and professional base  various local areas or branches part of the main communist party for that region  Start with membership ad build up into pyramid  Politbureau  executive at top o Each of the branches is headed by a secretary  Elected not appointed  Formal Rules everyone is elected by the membership, directly or indirectly o Democratic part of democratic centralism  everyone can apply for membership and all decisions are voted upon  Imposed then and everyone has to follow it  If the Party rakes a decision, all branches must follow t down the pyramid  Debate occurs until a position is taken  imposed on branches below  Top down power  admission was not automatic, you had to apply  Made decisions on if you were accepted o Nomination process decided from above  General Secretary controlled  Control of appointments, etc.  The State  only one party o 3 branches of gov’t:  resembles modern state  Legislature  State administration (executive)  Judiciary  Governed by a constitution  the party has leading role in society  mean the party has power, no one else has more power  gives a monopoly of political power the one existing party o Do no regulate the relationships between institutions not specified o No formal separation of power between different branches of gov’t o Aim of socialist consitutions  general ideological statement  Rather than a legal document, reflects Marxist idea that the state will wither away  Need to have this in place to set the rules to follow  Guaranteeing social economic rights  No limits of the state or the party, doesn’t outline procedures  Not written down  power struggle for succession  Controls all of the elections, policy making, and the state bureaucracy o Elections held in all of these countries  no competition for political power o Politbureau will decide who is nominated for elections at all levels  One candidate sometimes  Policy making  key decisions made by party before discussed with various branches o Politbureau discusses first  State bureaucracy  ministry of foreign affairs, defense, etc. o All of the ministerial appt’s decided by the party o What’s the point in having 2 separate institutions if they are the same/connected?  Party and State are interweaving  party controls the state o Power rests with t
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