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Chapt 3.docx

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Western University
Psychology 2075
William Fisher

Chapter 3  Ego- wait until its actually available  Superego- wait until its morally available  Displaced satisfaction disguise everyday sexual and aggressive urges  All behaviour is motivated by the ID all behaviour is defensive because we cannot directly express our needs  Identification: when you are really motivated to achieve some aim that’s not socially acceptable to express this, you acquire the characteristics and desires for someone that is gratified  Young boys develop an unconscious effort to become like their fathers  Women’s sex drive is more malleable  Freudian theory: sexual science didn’t exist when he began his theorizing therefore it is an ‘import’  Sociobiology: begins with an understanding of both male and female sexuality  How sure are you that the child you are taking care of is yours? o Men do not have as much genetic assurance o Commitment to offspring: women have a tremendous commitment; physiologically the body bears a baby o Men have very low commitment; they don’t bear the child/feed a child every four hours etc o Reproductive potential  women can only bear a small number of children in their lifespan o Males can essentially have an endless number of offspring; relatively low assurance that a baby is there’s- high reproductive potential o Men’s are very permiscuous – reproduction is very costly for women but their commitment is high in nurturance terms although their reproduction potential is limited o This is why they select a good partner to bear their children Sociobiology: Evolutionary Psychology  It did occur to sociobiologists that if men are successful at short term mating strategies; they are doing it to women who will occasionally exceed to short term mating strategies  Sometimes women will partake in short term relationships/mating excursions because it can serve to provoke jealousy by long term mates and can strengthen their bond with the woman  Mate Poaching: sometimes people will leave the long term mating and seek a long term ‘poach’  Someone may spend more time with someone they are not in a relationship with  Permanent breast enlargement o Preadolescent – No o Pregnant – No o Lactating – No o Post-menopause – No  Concealed ovulation o Forces pair bonding  Gene Culture Co-Evolution o People often take an “either or” perspective; nurture vs. nature o Culture doesn’t happen by accident; culture serves as an immediate reminder of behaviour  genes contribute to culture vice versa o Genes contribute to culture / genes and culture both contribute to behaviour  Indigenous Theory  Unconditioned erotic stimuli that lead to physiological sexual responses  Most of us are not solely dependent on genital touch for sexual arousal o People become aroused through unconditioned erotic stimulus o We acquire affective (emotional) responses to sexuality o Sexuality is primarily emotional o We may respond with negative or positive emotional and evaluative responses o Learned and unlearned sexual stimuli triggering erotic sexual arousal o People respond to arousal with erotic fantasies  Sexual Behaviour Sequence: Developmental Progression o One person’s sexual behaviour is the other persons erotic stimulus  Social learning theory – not by doing, but by watching  Social Exchange theory – interact with people who produce the best possible resources and if there is a more positive exchange with someone else you will leave your partner.  Sexual script theory – sexual scripts do change  Sex Research Methodology: o Is it ethical? o Is it accurate?  Ethics in sex research : o Peer review: risks of research have to be far outweighed by the benefits o Calculate the costs of doing research and the costs of not conducting this research  Risk Benefit Ratio: Must be more benefit to the participant than risk o Uncertain what results will be therefore cannot promise individual participant any benefit o The studies must pose very minimal risk o There are studies that can promise benefit but in general it does not  Informed consent o Greatest invention in research o Disclose to potential participants what the procedure of the study involves and they can make their own judgements on whether or not it is ethical o Procedures of the study are conveyed and individual can be his/her own ethics committee o Hypothesis of Study – what if hypothesis supposes something you do not agree with  You have to disclose the hypothesis because the individual has to decide whether or not they want to take part  After the data are collected the hypothes
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