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Lecture 7

Psychology 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Coulrophobia, Aversion Therapy, Exposure Therapy


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
John Campbell
Lecture
7

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Learning
Classical Conditioning: Ivan Pavlov
- Learn to associate two stimuli
- One stimulus elicits a response that was originally elicited only by the other
stimulus
Acquisition
- 4 important elements
- 1. Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
Stimulus that elicits a reflexive or innate, unconditioned response
(UCR) without prior learning
- 2. Unconditioned response (UCR)
- 3. Conditioned stimulus (CS)
Stimulus that, through association with the UCS, comes to elicit a
conditioned response similar to the original UCR
- 4. Conditioned response (CR)
Response elicited by a conditioned stimulus
Note: UCR and CR is the same thing what elicits them is different
Phobias: thought to be associated with classical conditioning
- Acrophobia: fear of heights
- Arachnophobia: fear of spiders
- Ophidiophobia: fear of snakes
- Coulrophobia: fear of clowns
Video: Coulrophobia women is exposed to clowns (her worst fear)
- Exposure therapy
- Slowly begin to expose her to examples of clowns (scale of 0-100 on how
intense of a feeling she gets based on that clown)
- Pictures of clowns keep getting scarier
- At each point, she has to work through the fear of clowns getting scarier on
the scale
- Faces a real clown in a room full of her friends so she isnt one on one with
just the clown
- Keeps her eyes on the clown, her anxiety begins to lift
- Hierarchy of fears
Video 2: Agorophobia fear of being out in environment areas (ex: elevators,
subways)
- Continues to go through the elevator over and over again
- Conditions herself and then becomes able to do it on her own
Common Conditioning Procedures
1- Short-delayed conditioning
- CS is still present when UCS is present
- Optimal learning
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- Learning occurs if delay 2/3 sec or less
2- Trace Conditioning
- Gap in time separates end of CS and start of UCS
- Learning occurs if delay 2/3 sec or less
3- Simultaneous conditioning
- CS and UCS presented at same time
- Slow learning
Factors Influencing Classical Conditioning
1. Number of pairings for the conditioned and the unconditioned stimulus
2. The intensity of the unconditioned stimulus
3. How reliably the conditioned stimulus predicts the unconditioned stimulus
4. The timing (temporal relationship) between the conditioned stimulus and
the unconditioned stimulus
Higher Order Conditioning
- Chain of events which 2 CS stimuli
- Expands influence of classical conditioning on behaviour
Flooding
- Expose patient to most extreme conditioning
- Confront the fear head on
- Example: A person afraid of heights take them up to the highest building
- Fear reaches a climax and then begins to slip away
Application: Overcoming fear
Exposure therapy
- Extinction of CR through exposure to CS without presence of UCS
Systematic desensitization
- Muscular relaxation paired with gradual exposure to fear-inducing stimulus
Flooding
- Exposure to fearful stimulus
Classical Conditioning: Advertising
(Associating one thing with another)
- BK Burger Shots: Guy has mini burger women all over him
- BK Beckham: Underwear commercial running in them to show comfort and
mobility
Aversion therapy
- Attempts to condition an aversion or repulsion to a stimulus that triggers
unwanted behaviour by pairing it with a noxious UCS
- Example: Giving alcoholic patients a drug the induces vomiting any time
alcohol is consumed
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