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Lecture 13

Psychology 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Gestalt Psychology, Change Blindness

Course Code
PSYCH 1000
John Campbell

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Change blindness
- 75% of participants don’t notice change
Role of attention
- Involves 2 processes of selection
1. Focusing on certain stimuli
2. Filtering out other incoming information
- Shadowing = participants wear earphones and listen simultaneously to 2 messages,
asked to repeat/shadow one of the messages
Shadowing experiments
- Participants can usually repeat one message successfully
- Generally have hard time remembering second message
- Shadowing experiments demonstrate we can’t attend completely to more than one thing
at a time
- Can shift attention rapidly back and forth between messages
Reaction to projectiles
- Jeffrey Lin et al
- Sat participants in front of a video screen and tested reaction times in response
to images that sped from background
- Significantly faster reaction times for images that were coming towards their head
compared to images that would just miss their head
Perceptions have an organization and a structure - gestalt principles
- Gestalt psychologists proposed principles of organization
- Figure-ground
- Tend to organize stimuli into central/foreground figure and background
- Central figure usually in front of ot on top of what we perceive to be background
- Figure tends to be more striking and more memorable than background
- Similarity
- Proximity
- Good continuation
- Closure
- Common region
Perceptual sets
- Readiness to perceive stimuli in a particular way
- Like being primed to expect something thus perceiving it
- Kelley (1950) guest lecturer
- warm vs cold” descriptor
- Bugelski and Alampay (1961)
- Primed participants with either human faces or animal pictures
- Then showed ambiguous images like rat-man
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