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Lecture 22

Psychology 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 22: Aversion Therapy, Long-Term Memory, Systematic Desensitization

Course Code
PSYCH 1000

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Lecture #22 – Memory
Next time read 279-288
How do we remember?
Why do we forget?
Behaviour therapy:
Psychotherapy based on principles of classical or operant conditioning
Problem is viewed as error or “failure” in learning
Cure is to re-learn
Treatment of fear
Simple phobia
Intense, irrational fear of object or situation
Relatively common
Anxiety disorder
Patient is still in touch with reality (they are aware it is irrational
but still afraid of it)
Over 200 recognized phobias
Some phobias are easy to deal with, ie fear of wild animals, keep away
from zoo or wild, but it can generalize or worsen (ie, may develop in to
fear for animals on TV)
Treatment of phobia:
Exposure: Fear viewed as CR, so extinguish by repeated presentation
1: Flooding: patient is continuously presented with fearful object, until
it no longer produces a response (not suitable for intense phobia), and
it’s hard for patients to do it willingly, therefore not always possible
Eg, put a snake phobia patient in a room of snakes for a few
2: Implosion: Patient must continuously imagine fearful situation
Eg, think about being in a room full of snakes
3: Counter-conditioning
Replace CR of dear with a more pleasant response
I: Identify a UCS – UCR (ie patient likes chocolate)
II: Pair the feared object (of low intensity, ie a picture of a small
snake) with the positive UCS-UCR
III: Gradually increase intensity of the feared object
IV: Feared object now results in positive CR
4: Systematic desensitization – Wolpe (1958)
I: Train client in muscle relaxation on cue
II: Client imagines fearful situation; receives relaxation cue
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