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Lecture 2

Psychology 2030A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Y Chromosome, Quantitative Genetics, Molecular Genetics

4 pages66 viewsFall 2017

Course Code
Psychology 2030A/B
Ian Nicholson

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Chapter 2
Genes are very long molecules of DNA at various locations on chromosomes within the cell
each normal human cell has 46 chromosomes
arranged in 23 pairs
in each pair: one chromosome from the father and one from the mother
first 22 pairs provide programs for development of the body and brain
the 23rd pair called sex chromosomes, determines sex
In females the sex chromosomes are XX, in males XY (Y chromosome is from the father)
DNA molecules that contain genes have a double helix, shape of two spiral staircases
a dominant gene is a pair of genes that determine a particular trait
a recessive gene must be paired with another recessive gene to determine a trait
polygenic - influenced by many genes ie. our IQ, personality, etc.
genome - individuals complete set of genes, comprises 20,000 to 25,000 genes
quantitative genetics - estimates the effects of genes in explaining individual differences
molecular genetics - focuses on examining the actual structure and functioning of genes
adverse life events such as chaotic childhood can overwhelm the influence of genes
Erica Kandel
suggested: that the very genetic stricture of cells may actually change as a result of learning
diathesis-stress model, individuals inherit, from multiple genes, tendencies to express certain
traits or behaviours, which may then be activated under conditions of stress
diathesis, is a condition that makes a person susceptible to developing a disorder
ie. Jody inherited tendency to faint at the sight of blood after seeing an animal being dissected
gene-environment correlation model - people might have a genetically determined tendency
to create the very environmental risk factors that trigger a genetic vulnerability
if you and your spouse have an identical twin, and both twins have been divorces, the chance
you will also divorce increases greatly
if your identical twin and your parents and your spouses parents have been divorced, the
chance you will divorce is 78%
cross fostering;
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