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Week 8- Chapter 8- Gender Dysphoria, Sexual Dysfunctions, and Paraphilic Disorders.docx

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Psychology 2030A/B
David Vollick

Week 8- Chapter 8- Gender Dysphoria, Sexual Dysfunctions, and Paraphilic Disorders Sexual Functioning -Alfred Kinsey -Masters & Johnson – 4 phases of sexual response -1.Desire Phase (response to external and internal cues) -2.Arousal Phase (physical and psychological signs of sexual arousal) -3.Orgasm Phase (ejaculation of seminal fluids and contractions in the outer third of the vagina) -4.Resolution Phase (decrease in arousal followed by refractory “resting” period – more common in men) -Figure 8.1 – The Human Sexual Response Cycle Sexual Response in Men & Women -Sex drive: physical and/or psychological craving for sexual activity and pleasure -Exists equally for men and women -Men think about sex more often, more frequent sexual activity (men every 30 minutes vs. women 2-3x/day) -Women equate sexual desire with a need for emotional intimacy -Figure 8.2 – SexualActivity of Males betweenAges 18-30 and Females betweenAges 18-22 -No universal standard of normal sexuality or sexual behaviour exists Understanding Sexual Behaviour -Heterosexuality: arousal by the opposite sex -Homosexuality: arousal by the same sex -The development of sexual orientation is biologically based -Androgen Theory – the chances of a male being gay increases with the number of older brothers, mother’s body responds to male androgens with antibodies that cross the placental barriers Cybersex -Includes all internet sexual activity -3 subgroups: -Recreational: enjoy it, something like they to do -Sexually Compulsive: compulsion to do it -At-Risk for Over-Use: spend all their time looking at it, give up other aspects of their life -Negative implications: real-life partner sex, disregard for responsibility, huge debts for fees Gender Dysphoria -When your biological sex and gender identity do not match -Transgender behaviour in adolescents – females refusing to wear dresses -Transexualism vs. Transvestic (desire for a man to dress in women’s clothing but not the desire to be a woman) Disorder Functional Impairment -Peer rejection -Social isolation -Negative moods -Distress in parents -Distress in children – prevented from engaging in desired behaviours Sex, Race & Ethnicity Factors -Detected between ages 2-4 -Early signs (persistent cross-dressing & plan) -Verbally wishes to be of the opposite sex -Prevalence rates: prepubescent vs. adolescence -Cultural considerations Etiology of Gender Dysphoria -Biological -Brains of transsexual males similar to heterosexual females -Hormonal Condition – “CongenitalAdrenal Hyperplasia” (CAH): missing an enzyme to make cortisol & aldosterone  excessive androgen production -Girls: genitalia look more male, as they age they develop a deep voice and facial hair -Boys: develop puberty at 2-3 years old -Psychosocial -Parental rejection (parent-child relationship) Treatment Options -3 Phases: -1. Living as desired gender for at least 2 years -2. Hormone therapy -3. Sex/Gender Re-assignment Surgery (SRS/GRS) -Surgical Outcomes (>95% report satisfaction) -Psychological -Attention and reinforcement of same-sex activities (kids) -Behavioural approach with rewards and punishment Sexual Dysfunctions -Absence or impairment of some aspect of sexual response that causes distress or impairment -Factors (age, sex, culture, life circumstances, illness or separation from sexual partner) Sexual Interest/Desire Disorders -Sexual desire- interest in sexual activity or objects, or wishes to engage in sexual activity -Disorder = diminished or absent interest in sexual activity -Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder -Persistent deficient/ absence of desire -Negative thoughts about sex, pain, depression -Female sexual interest/arousal disorder (decreased interest/ arousal) -Psychological = subjective sexual arousal disorder -Physiological reasons = genital sexual arousal disorder- interest but no physiological response -Combined sexual arousal disorder = both psychological and physiological -May not exist independently of disorders of sexual desire or orgasmic disorder = controversial -Male erectile disorder -Persistent & recurrent inability to maintain an adequate erection until completion of sexual activity -Significant distress and/ or interpersonal difficulty Orgasmic Disorder -Female orgasmic disorder -Persistent and recurrent delay o
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