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Week 9- Chapter 9- Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders.docx

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Western University
Psychology 2030A/B
David Vollick

Week 9- Chapter 9- Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders Just How Severe Is the Problem? -Very severe -Substance use- lower to moderate use of a substance that does not impair functioning -Substance intoxication (acute effects of substance use) -Is reversible -Substance specific -Results in maladaptive behavior or psychological changes associated with the CNS -Effects emerge shortly after consumption “Licit” Drugs (Legal Drugs)…Caffeine -ACNS stimulant that boosts energy, mood, awareness, concentration, and wakefulness -Coffee aspect of social life -Can be consumed safely in moderation -Long half life -The effective stays active a long time in your body -Addictive But it’s only caffeine…functional impairment -Caffeine intoxication -like alcohol intoxication -Health effects (cardiovascular disorders, reproductive problems, osteoporosis, cancer, and psychiatric disturbances) -Caffeine withdrawal  a “crash” Epidemiology of Caffeine -Most widely used drug, universally accepted -in NorthAmerica -80% of the world’s population consumers it daily -87% of the U.S population -Sodas (2 to 5mg to 60mg of caffeine per ounce, Coke vs. Mountain Dew) -Tea (5mg per ounce) -Coffee (7mg per ounce) -Lattes (over 20mg per ounce) -Espresso (50mg per ounce) -Energy drinks (10mg to over 100mg per ounce) “Licit” Drugs (Legal Drugs)…Nicotine -Highly addictive component of tobacco- both a stimulant and a sedative -Methods of delivery (cigars, pipes, smokeless tobacco, cigarettes) -Ways of entering the body -inhale through breath into lungs -skin through second hand smoke -Rapid effects – 8-9 secs. -Relief from tension -Social implications -Physical effects- release of adrenaline (a rush) & glucose; increases BP & HR, suppresses insulin secretion HG (hyperglycemia) -Neurotransmitters- release DA(dopamine- pleasure) So Difficult to Stop- Functional Impairment -Leads to addiction -Withdrawal symptoms and cravings -Largest PREVENTABLE cause of death in the world -Impact on health (cancer, CV (cardiovascular disease) disease) -Complications related to pregnancy; premature birth -Figure 9.1 The Effects of Nicotine on the Body Epidemiology of Nicotine -Declines in the number of people who smoke -Currently 45.3 million adults and 3 million teens smoke -21.5% of adult men smoke -17.3% of adult women smoke -Impacts all ethnic and racial groups -Also impacts all SES levels “Licit” Drugs (Legal Drugs)…Alcohol -Ethyl alcohol -Depressant -Absorbed by the stomach and intestines into the bloodstream -Impact on the neurotransmitter GammaAminobutyricAcid- inhibitory -Physiological and psychological impact of alcohol -Impairment ranges from feeling “tipsy” to extreme levels of intoxication “being drunk” Just One More Drink…Alcohol and Functional Impairment -Withdrawal symptoms -Delirium tremens -For alcoholics not just binge drinks -Alcohol cirrhosis -liver -symptom: skin will turn yellow -affects functioning of the liver -Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome- not learn from experience and can lead to custodial care -symptom: hallucinations, irritable, anxious, unsteady gait -Fetal alcohol syndrome -physical differences in comparison to healthy babies -Formication -bugs crawling under your skin all over your body Epidemiology, Gender -Most common psychoactive substance -More common among males (6.93%) vs. females (2.55%) -Heavy drinking defined as more than five drinks a day -Women are more susceptible to the negative health risks from drinking “Illicit” Drugs…Marijuana -From Cannabis sativa -Tetrahydrocannibal (active ingredient in marijuana) -Leaves can be used in food, drink, or smoked -When smoked, immediately enters the brain and lasts for 1 to 3 hours) -Effects of marijuana use -Impact on cannabinoid receptors -Activation of the brain’s reward system- DA(dopamine) And Functional Impairment -PeMarijuanarsistent memory loss, impairment of attention, learning skills, and motor movement -Craving & withdrawal = hard to quit -Withdrawal symptoms -restlessness, loss of appetite, can’t sleep, anxiety, irritability Medical use of marijuana -Relief from nausea -Chronic pain relief -Blood pressure reduction Epidemiology of Marijuana -Most frequently used (14.8 million users) -More common among males (8.3%) vs. females (4.3%) -Average age of first use 18 -Men greater risk -Prevalence of use disorders has increased -Figure 9.2 Use of Illicit Drugs “Illicit” Drugs…CNS Stimulants -Amphetamines (stimulant drugs that prolong wakefulness and suppress appetite) -Three preparations of amphetamine -1. -2. -3. -Ecstasy (common “club” drug) – serotonin (motivation + drive) -Crystal methamphetamine (form of meth that produces longer physiological reactions) -Common effects -Euphoria (increases level of serotonin) -Increased energy -Mental alertness -Rapid speech Functional Impairment and Epidemiology of CNS stimulants -Currently 1.2 millionAmericans age 12 and up are users -Equal among both males and females -Increased heart rate and blood pressure -Damage blood vessels in brain causing stroke -Psychotic symptoms -Tolerance develops rapidly -Over time users become violent and aggressive “Illicit” Drugs…Cocaine -From leaves of coca plant -1800s, a legal additive to cigars, cigarettes, and Coca Cola -Apainkiller -Powder form vs. rock form (Crack) -Ways of administration -Snort, inject, tablets -Increases levels of dopamine (inhibits reabsorption) & Norepinephrine, as do amphetamines Functional Impairment and Epidemiology of Cocaine -Currently 1.4 millionAmericans age 12 and up users -Highly addictive -Used more by males -Tolerance increased doseanesthetic and convulsant effectsdeath “Illicit” Drugs…Sedative Drugs -Two classes -Barbiturates (act on the GAB system, like alcohol) -Benzodiazepines (effectively used for the short-term but still have addictive propertie
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