Prologue: what is perceived control: control deprivation in animals, learned helplessness in people, reactions to illness, controlling our thoughts. 1964, confronted with a dog in a shuttle box (seporated into 2 sections) If he jumps the hurdle it will escape the shock. Most dogs learn the contingency quickly of jumping the hurdle to escape the shock. As soon as the light comes on the dug jumps to avoid the shock. Dog#2 the dog doesn"t jump, but accepts the shock he sometimes jumps but usually passively accepts the shock. Lh occurs in a wide variety of animals. Helplessness generalizes to new situations (harness shuttle box) An animal that leanredhelplessness in one situation, will show helplessness in a. E. g. if a dog learns it can"t control shocks, it later has difficulty learning that it total differene situation can control whether it gets food; another situation.