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Lecture 5

Psychology 2070A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Murder Of Kitty Genovese, Normative Social Influence, Psych

Course Code
Irene Cheung

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Social Exchange Theory
Weigh the costs and benefits of helping
Benefits of Helping
Costs of Helping
Someone will return the favour when
you need help
Relieve distress
Gain social approval
Increase feeling of self-worth
Physical danger
Negative perceptions of helper
Too time consuming
denies genuine altruism
people are always thinking about the costs and the benefits
does not account for emergency situations
true altruism is dependent on empathy for the person in need of help
Empathy: being able to put ourselves in another person’s shoes and experiences
emotions and events as they would
Tape about a student that is in Intro Psych. She is in a car accident and in a
wheelchair and cannot come to class
the participant is also an intro psych class
the prof asks the participant if he would be willing to lend her the notes so that she can
pass the course
two manipulations in the study:
High Empathy- was told to put
themselves in the position
Cost of Helping: high- carol is in your
class, you will be seeing her in class, and
watch her struggle
Low Empathy- was told to judge the
Cost of Helping: low- carol is

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Sources of empathy
Individual differences
People are naturally more empathetic than others
example: parents higher in empathy spend more time with their children
we feel more empathy for people who are more similar to us
similarity is also the basis for liking people
Closeness/ vividness
for example: asking people to donate to a disaster overseas is not as successful as
asking them to donate to something closer
vividness- the extent to which you can visualize the situation
means of understanding peoples emotions
people who are mimic-ed feel more liked and socially accepted
when you mimic others you have more interdependence, and you feel closer to that
person than to others
people who have this higher level of self construal are more willing to help
Emotional Helping
A social support network consists of people who can be relied upon to provide help
when needed
two kinds of helping:
Actual social support includes the real providing of help
Perceived social support refers to the belief that others are available and willing to
Perceived social support is more important
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