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Lecture

Psychology 2075 Lecture Notes - Amygdala, Foreplay, Mineral Oil


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2075
Professor
Prof

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Chapter 9: Sexual Response
Sexual Response Cycle
o 3 stages: excitement, orgasm, resolution
o 2 physio processes involved= vasocongestion and myotonia
o Vasocongestion= a lot of blood in the vessels of the genitals because of
dilation
o Myotonia= muscles contract throughout entire body
Excitement
o Vasocongestion results in erection corpora cavernosa and spongiosum fill with
blood
o Several arteries dilate and fill, veins carrying blood away compress
o Occurs fast in young males but could slow as a result of age, alcohol intake, fatigue
o As man gets closer to orgasm= pre-semen at tip from Cowper’s Gland, active sperm
o Arteries dilate kuz smooth muscle around them relax
o NT’s involved= Nitric Oxide which Viagra acts on
o Reverse process vasoconstriction makes erection go away
o NT’s= Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
o Process occurs in resolution phase
o Women= lubrication of vagina from same process vasocongestion
o Capillaries dilate
o Fluids seep through walls of vagina because of vasocongestion in surrounding
tissue
o 10-30 sec after stimulation can also be affected by age, alcohol intake,
fatigue
o Orgasm Platform= when closer to orgasm tightening of bulbospongiosus muscle
around vaginal entrance, becomes smaller
o Excitement phase tip of clitoris swells, corpora cavernosa swells, larger,
harder
o Crura of the clitoris also swells deeper in the body and vestibular bulbs (wall
of vagina)
o Late Excitement Phase elevation of clitoris, breasts swell and enlarge
somewhat (vasocongestion)
o Estrogen helps vasodilation, swells inner lips and opens them up
o Muscle fibres contract to make nipple erect
o Upper 2/3rds of vaginal walls expands “ballooning” response cervix and
uterus also pull up accommodating penetration
o “sex flush”= rash on upper abdomen spreads over chest
o men and women= increase blood p/pulse rate
o men scrotum thickens, tenses and pulls up by shortening of spermatic cord
Orgasm
o Men rhythmic contractions 0.8 sec intervals

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o 2 stages: preliminary stage the vas +seminal vesicles + prostate contract forcing
ejculate into base of urethra
o feel “ejaculatory inevitability” or cumming, can’t be stopped at this point
o second stage urethral bulb + muscles at base of penis + urethra contract forcing
semen out tip of penis
o males and females= increase of pulse, blood p and breathing rate, face contorted,
muscles of arms, legs, thighs, back and buttocks may contract.
o Carpopedal spasmsfeet and hands
o Femles rhythmic contractions .8 sec intervals apart, 3-4 in mild orgasm, 12 in long
intense one
o no tangible evidence, except for women who emit fluid
o often don’t reach orgasm as fast as men do, so young women may think they have
had one but havn’t
o a spreading sensation starts at clitoris and spreads to whole pelvis, or falling/opening
up
o sensations are similar for men and women
Resolution
o after orgasm body returns to unaroused state
o Women reduction in breast swelling (5-10 sec) after orgasm, clitoris returns to
normal size, orgasmic platform relaxes and shrinks
o usually takes 15-30 mins but 1 hour for girls who have never had one
o Both males and females return of pulse to normal rate, blood p, breathing rate
o Men detumescenceloss of erection
o 2 stages= first fast, still larger size, emptying of corpora cavernosa
o second stage more slowly, emptying of corpora spongiosum and the glans
o Refracory Period= incapable of being aroused, erection, or having orgasm, amount
of time varies, becomes longer as men grow older
o Women don’t have this, multiple orgasms possible
o Oxytocin released during arousal
o Prolactin surge at orgasm in men and womenmore during orgasm from intercourse
then masturbation
More on Women’s Orgasms
o 2 kinds= clitoral orgasm and vaginal orgasm
o Freud thought clitoral orgams were “immature” because little girls he thought
masturbated that way and as you mature you switch to vaginal orgams
o Affected many women who have been called “vaginally frigid” or “fixated”—
who have only had clitoral orgasms
o Masters and Johnson research refute Freud’s
o No difference between clitoral and vaginal
All female orgasms are same physiologically- consists of contractions
of the orgasmic platform and muscles surrounding vagina
o Clitoral stimulation is always involved in orgasm even in intercourse

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The crura of clitoris runs deep and is stimulated by penile penetration,
usually clitoris triggers the orgasm
o Multiple orgasms possible in short period of time for women because no
refractory period
If stimulation continues she can immediately be aroused and have
another orgasm
More likely to result from hand-genital or mouth-genital stimulation
than intercourse
Can have 5-20 during masturbation
o Multiple orgasmic men exist but rare
Other Models
o Master and Johnson’s model ignores cognitive and subjective and focuses only
on physiology
o Desire and passion not part of the model
o Subjective experience influenced by context and quality of the relationship +
psychological factors
o Research show 2 components: sensory dimension + cognitive-affective dimension
o Model cannot be generalized to population
Kaplan’s Triphasic Model
o 3 independent phases= sexual desire + vasocongestion of genitals + muscular
contractions of orgasm phase
o first is psychological, latter 2 are physio
o therefore adds cognitive part that master and Johnson lacked
o physio stages controlled by different nervous systems
o vasocongestion (erection and lubrication) parasympathetic of the autonomic
nervous system
o ejaculation/orgasm sympathetic
o different anatomical structures
o vasocongestion blood vessels
o orgasm nuscles
o vasocongestion and orgasm differ in susceptibility to age and drugs
o refractory period lengthens with age
o decrease in frequency of orgasms with age
o capacity for erection unimpaired with age
o ejaculation can be voluntary controlled but erection cannot
o erection problems= impaired vasocongestion
o rapid/delayed ejaculation= impaired orgasm response
Intimacy Model
o people in long term relationships motivated to engage in sex to enhance intimacy,
closeness, and commitment
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