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Western University
Psychology 2115A/B
Stephen Lupker

Lecture: 6 October-03-11 2:31 PM Ear  Ear picked up the stimulus from vocal vibrations  When you hit a vibration fork, the vibrations move back in forth and creates sounds that the ears pick up  The air molecules that are right next to the fork collide when being hit, it creates pressure and at each vibration it tries to spread everything about  So you see pressure air molecules being put under pressure and being released from that pressure then it comes back  If you are under water you will hear the same sound  There is limitation to this..when you are under water the distance and speed will be reduced  The sin graph represents the pressure going up and down  Notice the repetition of the graph, we would like to know how many times it repeats itself in a given period of time o Usually measured in a second  Frequency is this characteristic (repetition or cycle per sec) o Cycle per second which can be called Hertz  When the sound is presented it is sending at a constant speed, you could say that in a millisecond the graph is repeated say...ex. 4 times  When it comes to frequency we talk about the wave length  In a well designed tuning fork it is a single frequency, but it is very rare that in real life you will only have one  Amplitude is the height of the curve  We can measure the amplitude in units that are constant and they are called Bels -named after Alexander Graham Bell  They use 1/10th of a bell which is referred to Decibel (db)  Phase: measure of how one is riding the other  If you hit a tuning fork at the same time and at the same pressure with the same degrees to the amplitude both waves can cancel each other out  The ear is the sense organ and comes in three parts  The area you can see (outer part) referred to thePinna its job is to gather sound waves, it has crevices to trap waves and push them inwards into the Auditory Canal  As the sound comes inward, it goes into small areas in which the pressure goes up  The sound goes in toward the Middle Ear it is the area which has the ear drum or calledTympanic membrane and the sounds/vibrations makes the eardrum vibrate and then send the 3 bones: Hammer, Anvil, Stapes to be activates and their jobs is to vibrate and translate them further on to the Oval Window  You want to maintain the pressure (vibrations) so you do not loose the sound  The Oval Window is the starting point of the inner ear  The three bones really maintain the frequency so you don't or barely loose the pressure instead they increase the pressure  They are very inflexible to the rhythms of the body (ex. Heart) so you do not hear those beats  What it does pick up however is vibrations in your skull ex. When you speak the bones in your head will vibrate, and creates a interesting phenomena where yo
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