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Western University
Psychology 2310A/B
Rod Martin

Tutorial Week 2: Behavioral and Cognitive-BehavioralApproaches BehavioralApproach Two types of conditioning (EXAM QUESTION) know the difference Respondent (Classical) Automatic responses Autonomic NS Eliciting stimuli Antecedents - involves the autonomic nervous system - wanted to study digestion of dogs - Operant (Instrumental) Voluntary actions, behaviors Somatic NS Reinforcing stimuli Consequences - take physical action to create the response - Classical Conditioning – Ivan Pavlov Before conditioning - neurtral stimulus (bell) will create no response - ucs (f00d) create ucr (salivation) During conditioning - cs (bell) ucs (food) create ucr (salivation) After conditioning - bell will create cr (salivation) Classical Conditioning in Daily Life Emotional responses Phobias – two-factor model (EXAM QUESTION) Classical conditioning of fear Avoidance of stimulus (negative reinforcement – operant conditioning) - avoid phobic object to avoid your fear - phobia are a combination of the two types of conditioning Systematic Desensitization (Wolpe) Based on Extinction Develop a hierarchy of fears (SUDS) Train relaxation response Imaginal exposure – associate feared stimuli with relaxation instead of trauma - easy to treat if you face your fears - scale of 0 (no dog) -100 (dog is on your lap) - figure what is in the middle, talking about a dog, picture, video - build up to facing a real dog - can go backwards and forward - eventually having a dog on your lap will become a 0 - subjective units of distress (SUDS) - no technical right or wrong - do breathing and muscle relaxation techniques - B.F. Skinner – Operant Conditioning EXAM QUESTION Introduced Removed Positive Stimulus Positive reinforcement goes Extinction is gone up (add good) Negative Stimulus Punishment is gone Negative reinforcement goes up (subtract bad, remove something that is undesirable) - Negative reinforcement is not punishment Operant Conditioning in Everyday Life Interpersonal relationships Example of Bob and Mary Examples in parenting (exam ques
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