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Lecture 5

Psychology 2320A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Basal Ganglia, Major Depressive Disorder, Learning Disability


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2320A/B
Professor
Elizabeth Hayden
Lecture
5

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PSYCH 2320B (Lec 5: ADHD)
ADHD: Historical perspectives
George Still’s (1902) observations
Early/mid-20th century: Brain injuries & ADHD
Brain-injured child syndrome
Minimal brain dysfunction
1960’s: Differences in N.A. & Europe on views of ADHD
US, CA: ADHD = brain-based developmental disorder
UK: ADHD = conduct disorder caused by social disadvantage
DSM-III: ADD
DSM-III-R; DSM-IV: ADHD
DSM-5: new descriptions were added to show what symptoms might look like at
older ages
ADHD: DSM-5
Two core sets of symptoms
Hyperactivity/impulsivity. For example….
Acts on the go or driven by a motor
Interrupting others; excessive talking
Can’t stay seated; fidgets
Inattention. For example….
Can’t attend to details; careless mistakes
Off-task behavior
Concentration problems
Impairment must be present
Symptoms must begin by age 12
………persist for at least 6 months
………be present in more than one setting
Can be diagnosed as one of three types:
Combined (problems with attention and hyperactivity are present)
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Primarily inattentive
Primarily hyperactive/impulsive
ADHD: DSM-5 Subtypes
Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type: primarily symptoms of
hyperactivity-impulsivity (rarest group)
Often develops into combined type
Combined Type: children who have symptoms of both inattention and
hyperactivity-impulsivity
Both are likely to display:
Problems inhibiting behavior, sustaining behavior
Other externalizing disorders
Aggressiveness, defiance, peer rejection, suspension from school
Inattentive type: A different disorder?
Daydreaming, passive, lethargic
Comorbid with anxiety & depression
Less impairment in social functioning
More benign course
More girls
Many of these children are shy
A distinct disorder?
ADHD: Prevalence & Phenomenology
Symptoms best captured as a dimension
4-8% of school-aged children; prevalence increasing
Usual onset of symptoms is 3-4 years of age
More prevalent in lower social classes, disadvantaged ethnic groups
Sex ratio is 2.5/3:1 male:female
ADHD: Course
Impulsivity/hyperactivity symptoms emerge first (ages 3-4), followed by symptoms
of inattention (ages 5-7)
Impulsivity/hyperactivity symptoms decline earlier, while symptoms of inattention
remain high throughout childhood, declining in adolescence
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