Contextual Performance organizational citizenship behaviours Contexual performance is voluntary behaviours that help the organization in some way Can be directed at the organization itself or at members of the organization Raters, such as supervisors and peers, often notice these behaviours, and this can influence their ratings of in role behaviour These behaviours are often overlooked on both objective and subjective measures OCBO example: turning off the lights at night, volunteering for committees at work, promoting the organization by using their products or talking about the organization in a positive way (stewardship) OCBI: helping new employees adjust, covering shifts for other employees, organizing parties or extracurricular events, taking on extra work for overworked collea Including Contextual Performance in Performance Appraisal Useful for promotions Pro: Gives us more information about what an employee does daytoday Distinguishing between multiple high performers If included, will not distort ratings Con Punishes high performers who only do their job tasks Adds another layer of what is expected Requires employees to perform tasks not considered in job analysis PA as a System 360 degree feedback can integrate multiple rating sources to arrive at a holistic snapshot of employee performance Typically integrates self, peer, subordinate, andor supervisor ratings Disagreement is not only expected, but desired People from different sources see the employee in different roles or scenarios, thus observing different behaviours Even the most comprehensive PA systems will be inaccurate or ineffective if we are not assessing the right criteria As we discussed last week, people often act differently when they know they are being observed. If we were to rely on supervisor ratings only, we would likely be getting an idea of an employees maximal performance, rather than their typical. By including peers, customers, or subordinates, there is a greater chance we are capturing the typical performance and characteristics of an employee, as they cannot fake good all the time. 360 feedback allows multiple sources of ratings to be accounted for to get a full picture of employee performance. Not only does this solve the issues of observation (e.g. a manager may not see an employee being friendly or a good team player, but coworkers would observe and can rate this behaviour) but it also allows us to understand which tasks are the most common and which are the most importantvalued, based on what a rater choses to focus on.