B. Health – relevant beliefs eg: to quit smoking
- what are the belifs for the smokers to hold, so they quit smoking?
1. General health values: I am interested and concerned about haing good
- if they don’t have this health beliefs then it is very likely that they will not
2. Belief in a “health threat” influenced by…
- perceived severity of threat (smoking causes lung cancer, which is deadly)
- though many smokers down play the severity of smoking
- perceived vulnerability to threat (I could die from lung cancer if I smoke)
- understand that they can be PERSONALLY hurt!
- But: “unrealistic optimism” (bad things happen to other ppl, not me)
- Most smokers belief that they are less likely to get lung cancer than the other
3. Response efficacy: the health behavior quitting will reduce the threat (if I
quit now, I wont die from lung cancer)
- how does the person know this?
- But: person might say “its too late for me, I have smoked too long, I’ll get lung
cancer even it I quit, so what is the point to quit”.
4. Self efficacy: person is capable of performing the healthy behavior eg: I
can do it!
5. Outcome beleifs: weigh costs and benefits of healthy behavior (quitting)
- if benefits exceed costs, then the person will try to quit
- if costs exceed benefits, less likely to try to quit
- Important in adolescents: don’t care about long term negative outcomes of
unhealthy behaviors Eg: I might die in 40 years
- Better to emphasize immediate costs (my teeth will be yellow, my clothes
will be smelly, I will have bad breath)
- Teenagers don’t think about the long term costs
6. Subjective norms (2 elements)
- Normative beliefs: what we think other ppl want us to do. Eg:
- family and doc say “yea” (quit)
- smoking friends say “no” (don’t quit)
- teenagers get conflicting normative pressures
Motivation to comply with these other ppl (can be high or low)
Eg: if I am more motivated to comply to my friends who are telling me to
smoke than I will smoke.
- Intervention:want to add normative pressures to quit and increase
motivation to coply (my family wants me to quit… and I really want to make
them happy by quitting)
- Adding more normative beliefs = increase motivation to quit.