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Lecture 4

Psychology 3185F/G Lecture 4: 3185Class_L4-3

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Western University
Psychology 3185F/G
Patrick Brown

1)What was the big picture issue this paper deals with ? Things that promote retention, 1 particular strategy- how robust is this strategy, if we change the situation in some ways – is it still a good strategy? 2)What is the testing effect- practising retrieval Studing only for the case where the people see it again There is learning session, test session, and practise session (changed) 3) Learning retrieval or rereading  test When studying, if could study woith someone else & ask questions you should do better than is you just spent time on rereading it Paired association learning: people exposed to pairs of items, need to learn the pairs Rereading: see chair-tree again Retrieval test: you would see chair- , asked what is the other pair? – the basic nature is that you will do better doing this 4) What’s is a question of major interest to the researchers in this area If the effects ardifferent, there are different mechanisms If they respond in the same way when changed the variable, then same mechanism What is producing this testing effect? Retrieval induced forgetting: If you give people some material to learn and there are some connections between it, and test them only on a part of it, they will do better at the part that you tested but worse at the parts that you didn’t test -Will interfere with retention that you didn’t test -Not retrieving something will produce forgetting of that material the part that you didn’t retrieve will be worse than if you didn’t do the retrieval task (better though at the part that you retrieved -Is there the same mechanism producing this effect? -Episodic memory is the memory of your life  what you ate last night -involved in amnesia - Semantic memory: something that is publicly available  capital of Canada - would lost it you would seem crazy - Generation effect- diff because episodic test that uses semantic memory - Do you see similar types of responses , can it modify the generation effect do these effects act the same way ? 6)) are they produced by the same mechanism A very common research strategy – do they respond similarly? Here they change the format, which will produce how similar/ diff they are They can be blocked and mixed : The 2 conditions are retrieval & reread, they can be blocked- some that you do only rereading or only retrieval Mixed: is that you might have both, if you see 1 then it is retrieval, if you see both it is reread 6)- p2 What does the literature up to this point sugget about this: 3 effects retrieval induced forgetting, Generation, & testing effect You only find retrieval induced forgetting i n a block format, you only do 1 In mixed, you don’t get the diff in the trails because they are retrieving on all the trails ( even the one’s that you don’t need to retrieve, easier to retrieve all) In the generation effect do you see a diff? The reports suggest that you get bigger generation effect in mixed than in blocked – suggests that produced by diff mechanisms Testing effect: inconclusive- only a few studies & they came to diff conclusion, may not be useful either because procedures were tailored to generation effect - We have got something clear with induced forgetting ,if same is produced from - Effect goes away when mixed 8) Blocked practise vs mixed practise – the contribution this paper is going to make- is it the same effect as retrieval/rereading Delay vs not delay variable – make the test harder- just another independant variable to say that if it acts like the retrival induced forgetting Retrieval vs rereading 9) Recall : how many could they retrieve 10) Paired associated learning: Learning retrieval mode or rereading (members of both pairs) 12) 2 randomly paired words : nd They either see both words or one word , but you need to type the 2 word (in retrieval and rereading conditions)- so that there is only 1 diff between conditions eliminate any possible contribution of motor memory 13) 2x2x2 analysis of variance – telling us whether the diff btw means is larger due to random variantion? 14) whether they did blocked or mixed When you are doing this testing effect 15) why go through the trouble? Estimating the prob P (Data/Ho)- alternative to null hypothesis testing If null hypothesis is true what is the prob Null hypothesis: there is no diff , try to prove this wrong But here they are argument is that the null hypothesis is not wrong – don’t interact When you don’t reject the null hypothesis there are many reasons They have another approach which is substitute so that people don’t think that they just don’t know how to do the experiment/ reject null hypothesis 16 ) The replaced the delay with retroactive interference Learn 1 set of pairs , then learn another new association word pair with the same 1 word, diff 2 word nd Tested on teh first pair though Ex. Learn chair-tree, then chair – fish, tested to remember chair- tree -the thing that you learned later interferes with the f
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